|The new Avenure de l'Opéra one of the first renovations by Haussman|
the Second Empire under Napoléon III was at the height of its glory.
|Napoléon III in 1867|
Napoléon III decreed that Paris would hold the International Exposition of 1867, called "Exposition universelle [d'art et d'industrie] de 1867".
As immortalized by Edouart Manet,
|Manet, "A View of the 1867 Exposition Universelle," 1867. Oil on canvas, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, Norway|
Among the inventions presented at the Exposition, the scaphander by Benoît Rouquayrol and Auguste Denayrouze,
For the first time a Japanese delegation of dignitaries attended an Exposition Universelle,
and Japanese exhibitors exposed the visitors to Japanese art and prints.
|Chinese and Japanese exhibits at the 1867 Exposition Universelle.|
Among the visitors, the painter Claude Monet,
|Claude Monet poses in front of his beloved collection of Japanese woodblocks in Giverny.|
Ando Hiroshige, "Sudden Shower over O-Hashi", Claude Monet Collection
|Madame Monet, by Claude Monet, 1875|
and Vincent Van Gogh,
|Le Père Tanguy by Vincent Van Gogh, 1887. Le Père Tanguy sits in front of six japanese prints.|
At the closing ceremony, Napoléon III posed with visiting dignitaries,
The Report from the International Jury provided an overview of the world of Pipes, Cheroot Holders and Snuff Boxes in 1867.
The report of MM. S. Say and Renard in 1855, 25, class and Mr. Barral in 1862, class 4 (Section XI) are very comprehensive in the history of the pipes industry. They include a variety of products which, by the classification adopted in 1867, are divided between class 26 and class 91.
We find, indeed, in the first class, the meerschaum pipes and carved amber parts whose manufacture has expanded considerably in recent years.
§ 1. - Pipes, cigar-case.
We reviewed in Chapter III manufacturers of smokers accessories, identified in the Statistics of Parisian Industry in 1860.
At that time, 32 manufacturers, with 286 workers, made a figure of 2,656,412 francs business.
The ten-hour day is now paying for the sculptors, from 9 to 20 francs; for workers cutters, turners, etc., 5 to 9 francs, and for women, 2 to 5 francs.
It is only since 1850 that this industry has taken some importance in Paris. It was established by the Viennese whose talent was transformed by the attendance of our artists, and today who excel in their profession. On the other hand, the most skillful sculptor of Vienna came to spend several years in Paris to perfect himself in his art, and it is easy to recognize his way of doing, in the windows of Vienna's major manufacturers. It is between Vienna and Paris that the market shares these items. We must recognize that, for common pipes, this industry still new in France, hardly supports a fight with the powerful factories in Vienna. With the carved meerschaum pipes, we take the advantage. Our taste for innovation and artistic originality reveals and lifts us above our rivals; but not on these parts of a higher price than the consumer rolls and Viennese manufacturers keep big business for export. This is explained by comparing the days of workers in Vienna and Paris. Note that for the rich pipes, that is to say sculpted, the price of labor is almost the same in both cities. We have the advantage of artistic resources within our capital, and our work is superior. In the manufacture of ordinary goods, on the contrary, we are facing a substantial industry that finds workers for 15 francs and even 10 francs per week, 1 fr. 65 c. per day. We understand the difficulties faced by our manufacturers to produce, with a minimum of 5 francs per day, pipes whose price does not exceed that of rival products. It is however not insurmountable and, in class 91, there are average qualities in which, at the same price, we win by the finish.
Five manufacturers form an exhibition of the most interesting in its variety. One feels, in each of them, an original and intelligent direction assisted by skilled sculptors and special in this kind of work.
MM. Bondier, and Ulrich Donninger exposed, amidst remarkable pipes, a coat of arms in carved amber by the hands of Mr. Perron, who is originally from Bavaria. This company, which is the largest in the Paris production in this genre, has revenues of 500,000 francs.
Mr. Six is a leading Viennese who, in 1852, imported in France his industry. Its window contains items that have a character quite apart from items that are found everywhere.The progress he has engineered in this industry are of different types. The relationships he has established with Turkey for the direct purchase of raw material, the classification of plain pipes by numbers according to the German system, and the development of the waxing process, are aspects that have earned him the approval of connoisseurs.
Mr. Sommer has exhibited a collection of amber cheroot holders of great delicacy, with sculptures of figures and coats of arms.
The former Lenouvel, currently MM. Desbois and Weber, known by their department store on the Place de la Bourse, have a very important exhibition of sculpture. Their mounts are also very remarkable works of jewelry, which harmonize perfectly with the beautiful pieces of amber that they presented.
The inventor of the sanitary pipe, which protects the smoker against the danger of absorbing nicotine L. Goetsch was noticed by a collection of pipes composed of busts of famous people, quite accomplished as portraits: Louis XIV, Racine, etc. ., but one wonders if it would not have been better to choose other characters. A Leda made of carved amber is the most important part of this exhibition.
We recognize in our manufacturers a great superiority over their rivals, and marked progress compared to previous exhibitions. They reached the highest limits of know-how. A better result can be achieved by calling upon artists with superior skill at designing new models: skilled sculptors of our manufacturers, inspired by more varied subjects and also better suited to the use for which they are intended, that of producing real masterpieces.
§ 2. - Snuff.
Since fashion has enabled people of the world the use of cigars, snuff has become a luxury and this industry is rather conspicuous by the perfection of the work rather than by its importance. A considerable portion of tobacco boxes exceeds our expectations: those in gold and silver, which are in another class; but we have to appreciate the transparent tortoiseshell snuff boxes and those of so-called half-shell sheet. It is obtained by heating two shell plates between which a horn plate is placed, and which are compressed with heat and pressure. The top and bottom are made this way, the side is powdered tortoiseshell. These snuff boxes, though of a very lower price, have as much in appearance as those made of shell, but they are of a less reliable use. You can incrust them like the most beautiful snuff-boxes, and they have completely replaced the old ones which were made entirely of shell powder and had no transparency.
The snuffbox of Paris is manufactured from roots and palm wood, olive tree, maple, cedar, Zéen oak, ivory, tortoiseshell, veneered wood, or marbled horn.
Just look at Mr. Mercier's showcase to realize the care, skill and taste that drive his manufacturing and gave it a universal reputation. Not just outside; inside these boxes and even the hinges are lined with shell, and the hermetic seals are very soft.
In 1827, a day of work in the 12 to 15 factories that existed at that time was 3 fr.50-4 francs a day: while the beautiful wood snuffbox was selling for 80 to 60 francs.
Today, the day of labor is 5 to 7 francs per day, and products better made than those mentioned above are selling 20 to 30 francs. Many workers in this line of work do it from home and earn from 8 to 9 francs, whereas formerly they could hardly earn more than 5 to 7 francs.
Snuff boxes of Saint-Claude is a very important production: 1,000 or 1,200 workers manufacture 125,000 dozen per year. Prices vary between 1 fr. 25 c. the dozen and 12, even 15 francs; those tortoiseshell lined worth 4 to 20 francs the dozen. The snuff horn is 3 to 10 francs. There, as in Paris, the best workers work in their own room, and sell directly to merchants of Paris, Lyon and Geneva. They earn from 5 to 6 francs a day.
They manufacture the so-called Brittany snuff-boxes in Rennes, in white or gray horn; its main merit is in its strength, but the shape is often poor.
We come upon snuff boxes made of cardboard, whose main factories are in Sarreguemines and Forbach. The lightness and cheapness insure them great consumption, but the hinges and closures are far inferior to those of snuff boxes made out of horn.
Who is the smoker who does not stop a few minutes at the Champ de Mars in front of the shop where carvers and turners MM. Cardon and Illat work meerschaum? And this station is all the more interesting that just like most trades so ingeniously installed by Mr. Haas, one can follow the series of operations that make a shapeless bleached earth into an elegant pipe decorated with a piece of amber, that manufacturers sell 15, 20, 30 and 40 francs. Using the lathe, a worker cuts down the block, and first draws the bowl and the stem; Drilling is done in the same way; the glass of the lamp is surrounded by a globe filled with water wherein some copper Bel grains were dissolved, giving a soft green light. A shape is roughly given, the cutter clears the part that connects the bowl to the stem, work that can not be done with the lathe. The pipe is then given to the presleuses who, using a rugged herb called presle, rub down and remove the rough edges. It then remains only to dip the pipe in a white wax bath to give it solidity and submit it to a final polishing, which is obtained using Vienna porphyrised lime. A piece of turned and polished amber complements the pipe. But this is the ordinary product. Typically, the meerschaum is sculpted; because of its brittle nature, it must be immersed in water as it becomes easy to work and lends itself to every whim of the chisel. You can see at the Exposition some very finely carved examples, which have the merit of being by nature originals.
The production of meerschaum pipes is a very contemporary conquest we did it a few years ago, the Austrian monopoly, through the efforts and skill of several industrial, at whose head he is very fair to place Mr. Cardon, the exhibitor of class 95. In 1855 in the middle of the show, Mr. Cardon left his business, founded three years earlier to get in the middle of Asia Minor, Anatolia, to a meerschaum pit he had been told about. Undeterred by the expense, fatigue, dangers of such a journey, Mr. Cardon arrived in Anatolia and recognized a significant deposit of this precious land. After a few months he returned to France, bringing with him a still unknown industry in France. He summoned Austrian turners, cutters, presleuses, and set up a workshop to which he added French sculptors. Today, next to Mr. Cardon, who employs twenty workers, several manufacturers have appeared that benefited from his efforts and his initiative. The sculptors earn 15 to 20 francs a day, turners and cutters, 7 to 10 francs, the presleuses 5-6 francs, and now, thanks to the boldness of a French industrialist, a new industry is acclimatized in France. It is now in full prosperity.
Mr. Cardon wanted to make everyone enjoy his trip to Anatolia. - Under the title "Museum of Smoking," it brought together some notes on the history of tobacco and memories of East These pages, unpretentious written, are read from the first to the last, as everything is marked at the corner of the mind and common sense.
We can to turn to US newspapers to get an additional perspective on the fair.
From the Journal of Commerce, Jan 30, 1867:
"There is now an exhibition at Kaldenberg & Son's, 6 John Street, a meerschaum pipe designed for the Paris Exposition. It was made in this country and the carving on it will do credit to American workmanship. This pipe itself is eleven inches in length and the amber mouthpiece eight inches long and two inches thick. The carving on the trunk of the pipe represents the meeting of Macbeth with the witches on their way from the battle field. The figures are four inches in height. Surmounting the bowl, Shakespeare is represented seated in a chair, looking down upon the scene - the offspring of his own brain. The likeness of the great dramatist is ingenuously imitated, and the whole idea well carried out. It is understood that the famous worker in meerschaum Lenouvel of Paris will also have specimen at the Exposition. Many judges however think it doubtful if any of his work in this time will eclipse this specimen of American carving."
This pipe is a facsimile of one of the pipes sent to the Paris Exposition and received the Prize there in competition with over ninety other manufacturers from Vienna, Dresden, Ruhla, Paris, Munich and London.
It is a scene from Shakespeare's Macbeth, and represents the meeting of Macbeth and the three witches , with a fine portrait of Shakespeare on the cover. Designed and executed by F. Kaldenberg.