Wednesday, March 6, 2013

Duc d'Aumale and Abd el-Kader

Henri Eugène Philippe Louis d'Orléans, duc d'Aumale (January 16, 1822 – May 7, 1897) was born at the Palais Royal in Paris. The Duc d'Aumale was  the fifth son of King Louis-Philippe and Marie Amalie of Bourbon-Sicilies. 

1839 oil on canvas painting of Louis-Philippe, King of France from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy by Franz Xaver Winterhalter (1805–1873)

He was brought up by his parents with great simplicity and educated at the college of Henri IV. 

Queen Maria Amalia of the French, with her children Henry of Orleans, Duke of Aumale (1822) and Antoine of Orléans, Duke of Montpensier (1824), painted in 1835 by Louis Hersent, Palace of Versailles.

The Duc d'Aumale distinguished himself during the French invasion of Algeria.

Henri d'Orléans, Duc D'Aumale, oil on canvas, by
Franz Xaver Winterhalter (1805–1873)

Henri d'Orléans, duc d'Aumale, lithograph by Winterhalte, Musé Louis-Philippe

The Duc d'Aumale was wounded in battle and is depicted in this masterfully carved boxwood pipe dated 1850, in a reclining position while a nun bandages his wounds.

case is signed V.F.S.H., Length: 14" Height: 4", Private Collection

 The Duc's aide de camp sits on a bundle of supplies holding his rifle.

 Governor General Bugeaud, a veteran of the Napoleonic wars, 

Marshal Thomas Bugeaud (1784-1849), duc d'Isly, maréchal de France, Portrait by Charles Philippe Larivière. Château de Versailles

was informed of the presence of Abd el-Kader (عـبـد الـقـادر الـجـزائـري)'s Smala in the Boghar region. Abd el-Kader, the military and religious leader who had founded the Algerian state and was leading the Algerians in their struggle against French domination.

Portrait of Abd el-Kader by Emile Bargat

Abd El-Kader's coran dated 1390

Bugeaud ordered general Lamoricière and the Duc d'Aumale to hunt him down.
The Prince left Boghar with 1300 foot soldiers and 600 horses and learnt that the Smala was about 80 km South of Goudjila. 

On May 16, 1843 the Duc d'Aumale attacked.

"Le duc d'Aumale attaque la Smalah à Taguin le 16 mai 1843", dessin d'Edouard Detaille offert au Duc d'Aumale en 1887.

French painter Horace Vernet in 1843 immortalized the capture of the Smala, which established the Duc d'Aumale's reputation as a brilliant strategist.

The painting remains the focal attraction of the African wing at the Museum of French History in Versailles, France created by Louis-Philippe.

Emir Abd el Kader surrendered to the Duc d'Aumale on December 23, 1847, where he surrendered his favorite horse as a sign of capitulation. 

Capitulation of Abd-el-Kader (1808-1883) Abd-el-Kader, Sultan of Algeria since 1832, fought a "Holy War" against France.  Oil on canvas, painted by Augustin Regis, Musée Condé, Chantilly, France

Abd el-Kader is exiled to the castle of Amboise in the Loire valley in France.

Abd el-Kader at Amboise, Ange Tissier, 1853, Musée de Versailles.

In a stunning reversal of fortune, after the Revolution of 1848, the Duc d'Aumale was exiled to England and busied himself with historical and military studies, replying in 1861 by a Letter upon History of France to Napoleon III's violent attacks upon the House of Orléans.

Duc d'Aumale's "Letter upon the History of France" addressed to Napoleon III in 1861

Duc d'Aumale, photographed in 1870

In 1852, Napoléon III declared Abd el-Kader free to leave France and with a generous pension from the French government, Abd el-Kader settled in Constantinople on January 7, 1853.

Abd el-Kader in Constantinople by Stanislas Chlebowski, 1853

"pipe d'étalage" by Gambier, representing Abd el Kader, Height: 20cm

1 comment:

  1. I like the way you weave through the story of these figures' lives... it brings them and history to life. The pipe detail of the nun wrapping the duc's leg is simply remarkable. Exquisitely carved, these are more than pipes, they are fine art statues of notable museum quality.