Sunday, March 31, 2013

Sir Walter Raleigh's Pipe ca 1617



This pipe pouch with clay pipes and tobacco stopper from the Wallace Collection in London is believed to have been Sir Walter Raleigh's own.


Composed of Leather, metal, clay, bone, bamboo, wood and silver   
Height: 24.2 cm, pouch, open
Width: 12 cm, pouch, open


It was found in his cell after his execution 29 October 1618 for treason under the rule of King James I.


Sir Walter Raleigh's cell in the Tower of London


The hand written inscription on the tobacco pouch reads:

'Comes meus fuit in illo miserrimo tempore' 

'He was my companion during that very unhappy time'

Below the inscription is a hand drawn heart enclosing the initials W.R. and the year of 1617



Walter Raleigh in 1611 for his book on the History of the Worlds, written while in prison



In 1617, Sir Walter was sitting in prison with hopes of a royal pardon dissipating, looking back at his life. Quite an eventful life it had been...

With such highs as becoming the favorite (or rather one of a selected few) of Queen Elizabeth I

Portrait of Elizabeth to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background. Elizabeth's hand rests on the globe, symbolising her international power.


being granted in 1583 a Royal Patent to explore the New World and lay the grounds for a colony north of Spanish Florida, 


The full title in the cartouche reads, "Americae pars, Nunc Virginia dicta, primum ab Anglis inuenta sumtibus Dn. Walteri Raleigh, Equestris ordinis viri Anno Dm. MDLXXXV regm verso Sereniss: notrae Reginae Elisabethae XVII. Hujus vero Historia peculiari Libro discripta est, additis etiam Indigenarum Iconibus." The box on the left reads, "Autore Ioanne with Sculptore Theodoro DeBry, Quiet excud." 1585

naming the new found land Virginia, in honor of his Queen and protector Elizabeth the "Virgin Queen", 


Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607


Jamestown in 1610

Jamestown pipes dated 1608-1610 "sit atop fragments of a sagger, a small, clay, pipemaking oven."
Photograph courtesy Michael Lavin, Jamestown Rediscovery. National Geographic News


Pipes dated 1608-1610 "stamped with the names of Sir Walter Raleigh and other eminent men back in England such as Earl of Southampton (Henry Wriothesley), Shakespeare’s major patron and top Virginia Company official." Photograph courtesy Michael Lavin, Jamestown Rediscovery. National Geographic News

 
coming back from the New World a fervent tobacco pipe smoker who introduced Queen Elizabeth I and her Court to this new found pleasure,


First known image of a man smoking in England, from Chute's pamphlet "Tabaco", 1595
 
  
 being knighted in 1585, 





Arranging for the construction of  "The Ark Royal" , which weighed 800 tons and was completed in 1587.  The "Ark Royal" was chosen to lead the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588.



  The Ark Royal had four masts and a normal crew of 270.



Launching expeditions to find the El Dorado, 

and publishing upon his return an account of the riches to be found in Guiana: first in The Discovery of the large, rich and beautiful Empire of Guiana in 1596, followed by his Brevis et admiranda descriptio regni Guianae: auri abundantissimi, in America.



Eldorado, Illustration from "Regni Guianae," by G. Raleigh, 1594-96



The lows included being emprisoned and disgraced for secretly marrying one of the Queen's Ladies-in-waiting, 

 
Full-sized portrait of Elizabeth Raleigh, ca. 1600 by Robert Peake the Elder (ca. 1551-1619)


the loss of protection when Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603, 


King James I of England, VI of Scotland in 1606


the aversion that her successor to the throne, King James I of England, VI of Scotland, had for tobacco, 


As he made clear in his violent Counterblaste to Tobacco in 1604.




Richard Braithwaite’s The Smoking Age (1617)


But the lowest point of all, and clearly of more critical relevance than tobacco to his current predicament, was his repeated failure to find the gold mines and treasures of El Dorado.


The scene depicted in this ancient artwork, on display at the Gold Museum in Bogota, Colombia, shows the origin of the El Dorado myth. Legend tells of a Muisca king who would cover himself in gold dust during festivals, then dive from a raft into Lake Guatavita.


Friday, March 29, 2013

The Great Exhibition of the Works of All Nations in London 1851


Organized in London, the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations also referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition, after the name of the main structure built for the occasion in Hyde Park, London.


The Crystal Palace from the northeast from Dickinson's ''Comprehensive Pictures of the Great Exhibition of 1851''.

Designed by Joseph Paxton (1803-1865), 





the building  drew upon his experience designing greenhouses for the sixth Duke of Devonshire. At 1851 feet (564 m) long by 454 feet (138 m) wide, it was constructed from cast iron-frame components and prefabricated glass made almost exclusively in Birmingham and Smethwick.






The Glass and Lighthouse Works at Smethwick in the early 20th century. Glass cones can be seen at various locations across the site. Chance Brothers & Co., Limited, 100 Years of British Glass Making 1824-1924 (Smethwick and Glasgow, Chance Brothers & Co., 1924).

The Exhibition, intended to show the might of England from art to technology and the wealth of colonial raw materials, was actively sponsored by Prince Albert. 


Spacious galleries of technological wonders, such as the hall of Machines in Motion, captivated visitors to the Great Exhibition.


It was inaugurated by Queen Victoria on May 1st, 1851 in a solemn ceremony.

I cordially concur with you in the prayer, that by God’s blessing this undertaking may conduce to the welfare of my people, and to the common interests of the human race, by encouraging the arts of peace and industry, strengthening the bonds of union among the nations of the earth, and promoting a friendly and honourable rivalry in the useful exercise of the faculties which have been conferred by a beneficent Providence for the good and the happiness of mankind.

 
—From Queen Victoria’s remarks at the opening of the Great Exhibition of Works of Industry of All Nations, 1 May 1851


  
Queen Victoria, in a pink gown, stood with Prince Albert and announced the opening of the Great Exhibition.

The State Opening of The Great Exhibition in 1851. Colour lithograph, England, XIXth century. Victoria & Albert Museum. Queen Victoria opens the Great Exhibition in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London in 1851
  
44 'Foreign States' in Europe and the Americas participated.

 
Transept

13,000 exhibits,



included a Jacquard loom, an envelope machine, kitchen appliances, steel-making displays and a reaping machine that was sent from the United States.








By the time of the final ceremony on October 15, 1851 over six million visitors had admired the masterpieces of art and technological ingenuity from all over the world.
 

Closing Ceremony, October 15, 1851


Juries deliberated and awarded medals to the best of the best in each Class. The reports they wrote appeared in a book entitled "Reports by the Juries on the subjects in the Thirty Classes into which the exhibition was divided."



Courtesy Science Museum of London


Class XXIX Section V was on "Pipes and Amber Manufactures". It is another insight in the state of the pipe world mid XIXth century as seen through the eyes of the experts of the time.

Here it is:

"Before discussing the merits of the pipes contributed from all quarters of the globe to adorn the Great Exhibition, it will be proper to notice the materials principally employed in their manufacture.

Clays, of different kinds are more used than any other substance in the formation of pipes: but as their nature and composition will probably be fully discussed in the Special Report on the fictile-arts, of which clay-pipe making is comparatively but a small branch, it is needless here to describe them.

Woods of several descriptions are next in importance. The wild cherry-tree, and the jasmine are the principal sorts, and great care is bestowed on their culture to ensure their growing free from knots and blemishes; the young stems of the jasmine being wound with cloths to effect that object. Lemon-tree and ebony are also in request, the latter being generally used for carved tubes.

Mother-of-pearl, Horn, Ivory and Bone are extensively used; nor are the precious metals and costly gems excluded from a share in the formation of the pipe. But these have not that intimate connection with the subject under notice, which appertains to two materials -  Meerschaum and Amber, whose names are euphonious to the ear of the genuine smoker. The former substance is devoted exclusively to his use; and the latter though not entirely his own, pays him a considerable tribute, in the form of mouth-pieces.

So early as the year 1609, the genuine meerschaum must be held in estimation in England; since Dekker appears to refer to it in his "Gull's Horn-book", when he wishes his gallant to be able to discourse "which pipe the best bore, and which burns black, and which breaks in the burning".

Meerschaum (Ecume de mer) is a mineral of somewhat rare occurrence. It consists of magnesia, silica, and water, and may be called a hydrates silicate of magnesia (MgO, SiO3+HO). As the compound is not crystalline, its constituents are variable, and thus silicates of iron and alumina are often found in combination with it. These affect the colour of the meerschaum, which when pure is quite white. Silicate of iron frequently occurs, and gives it a tinge of colour, varying from the palest yellow o a deep brown. Good meerschaum is tolerably soft, it resists the pressure of the hand, but it is easily indented by the finger-nail, and, especially after having been wetted, may be easily cut with a knife. The fracture is generally earthy and rarely conchoidal; still the state of aggregation of even pure meerschaum is very variable, as is proved by the marked differences in its specific gravity. Some kinds sink in water, others float on its surface; these qualities in the estimation of the pipe-maker , are indicative of different values, for he rejects both the very heavy and the very light, and prefers those of medium density. The light varieties are generally very porous, and even contain large cavities, whilst the heavier kinds he suspects to be an artificial product.




Meerschaum is met with in various localities, in Spain, Greece, and Moravia; but by far the largest quantity is derived from Asia Minor, it being dug chiefly in the peninsula of Natolia, near the town of Coniah


Eskisehir Province houses rich meerschaum mines


Formerly the material was roughly fashioned on the spot into bowls, which were more elegantly carved in Europe. The art was especially cultivated in Pesth and Vienna, where it formed an extensive and important branch of trade. These rough bowls still occur in commerce, but by far the greater part of the meerschaum is exported in the shape of irregular blocks with obtuse angles and edges, requiring careful manipulation with the aid of water, in order to remove irregularities and faulty portions. A beautiful specimen of meerschaum thus cleaned is contributed by LUDWIG HARTMANN (Austria, 675; and there is also a box of meerschaum earth in the Grecian Department, 23). 




This preliminary treatment still leaves numerous blemishes, and the meerschaum of commerce has defects of various kinds; besides various minerals scattered through its mass, it contains a hard sort of meerschaum, which the manufacturer call chalk (Kreidemassen), and which is the cause of much difficulty in the carving.

Previous to the mechanical treatment of the meerschaum (this subject is ably discussed under the head "Meerschaum", in Prechtl's "Encyclopadie des Gewerbe und Kunst," from which some of the foregoing remarks have been abstracted) for making the bowl, it is subjected to a certain preparation. It is soaked in a liquefied unguent composed of wax, oil, and fats. The wax and fats which the substance absorbs, cause the colours which meerschaum assumes after smoking. Under the influence of the heat produced by the burning tobacco, the wax and fats pass through all the stages of a true process of dried distillation, the substances thus formed become associated with the products of the distillation of the tobacco, and by their diffusion through the  meerschaum, all those gradations of colour which are so highly prized by the connoisseur are produced.

Occasionally, though rarely, the bowls are artificially stained by dipping them, before they are soaked in wax, in a solution of copperas (sulfate of iron) either alone, or mixed with one of dragon's blood. This process mist manifestly affect, very materially, the shades of colour produced in smoking.

Attempts have not been wanting to imitate meerschaum, the process being  rather mechanical than chemical; for although chemists have of late been very successful in the artificial production of minerals, for instance palagonite (Bunsen), spinelle (Ebelmen), cystallized carbonates (Secarmont), no one has attempted the production of meerschaum, chemically.

The large quantity of meerschaum parings that are left in roughing out the bowls would entail considerable loss, unless some process had been devised of rendering them available. A species of meerschaum bowl has long been known in commerce under the name of Massa-kopfe (massa bowls), which is made from the parings; these are triturated to a fine powder, boiled in water, and moulded into blocks with or without the addition of clay, each of these blocks suffices for one bowl; but before they can be used they must be allowed to dry for some time, as they contract considerably. Specimen of composition pipe-bowls and cigar-tubes are exhibited in the Austrian Section (687). 

These bowls are distinguished from real meerschaum by their greater specific gravity, but there is no very certain test by which the real meerschaum can be distinguished from the composition, and many suppose that all the heavier descriptions are spurious, though there is no absolute proof of this being the case. A negative test may however be mentioned; the composition bowls never exhibit these little blemishes which result from the presence of foreign bodies in the natural meerschaum, therefore if a blemish occur in a meerschaum bowl, which is very frequently the case, the genuineness of the bowl is rendered most probable; but as these do not show until after the bowl has been used for some time, the test is not of much value.

Amber   The most extensive use of this elegant material is for the manufacture of the mouth-piece, an essential constituent of the genuine meerschaum and Turkish pipe. 

Up to the present day, amber mouth-pieces continue in great request in the East, where they fetch very high prices, instance of which will be quoted. There is a current belief in Turkey that amber is incapable of transmitting infection, and as it is a great mark of politeness to offer the pipe to a stranger, this supposed negative property of the amber accounts in some measure for the estimation in which it is being held. 




In the Christian countries of Europe, ivory, bone, and horn, have to some extent usurped the place of the more costly material which is reserved for the higher class of pipes.

Amber is also much employed in numerous fancy small articles, especially for beads, necklaces, brooches and earrings. The Exhibition furnishes also examples of its being worked occasionally into candlesticks, salvers, pipe-tubes and other larger articles. [...].
Copal, which bears a strong resemblance to, but is much cheaper than amber, is occasionally substituted for it, fraudulently or through ignorance. 


Copal

A few words may be said concerning the chemical characters of amber, which, however, do not affect its employment in manufactures. According to an analysis of Berzelius, it contains a volatile oil, succinic acid, two resins soluble in alcohol and ether, and a complex bituminous substance (succinic bitumen) which is not affected by any solvent.

The mode of obtaining amber is peculiarly interesting. The greater part is found on the coast of Prussia Proper, especially between Koenigsberg and Dantzic; it is distinguished as terrestrial and marine amber; the former is dug in mines and is generally found in alluvial deposits of sand and clay, associated with fossile wood, iron pyrites, and alum shale. Amber is also found in some other countries but never to any amount. 

The marine amber is cast ashore during the autumnal storms on the coast of Pomerania and Prussia Proper.It is then picked and fished for with small nets. There are several fine specimen of both descriptions of amber in the Austrian Section (675, p. 1042), and in the Prussian Section (438, 441, 40, and 41, pp. 1075, 1050).




In the case bearing the latter number are specimens of land amber, and the fossile wood associated with it which were obtained at a depth of 60 feet by the exhibitor, Mr. TESSLER (41, p. 1050), who employs about 20 workpeople in his amber-pits.

The opinions respecting the origin of amber are very divided, some hold the view expressed by Tacitus in his Germania, that it is a resin exuded by certain coniferae, traces of which are frequently observed among the amber. Others assume it to be a species of wax or fat, having undergone a process of slow putrefaction; and they base their views upon the fact that chemists are able to convert cerous or fatty substances into succinic acid by inducing oxidation artificially. It is quite certain that one time amber must have been liquid for numerous small animals are found enclosed within it;these for the most part are insects belonging to an extinct species of Arachnidae (40). There are numerous and excellent specimens of amber enclosing insects in the Prussian Section (441), and others in a case which deserves favourable mention from D.T. TESSLER, who has sent one specimen containing the leg of a toad. (according to M. Natalis Rondot, specimens of amber containing insects are of frequent occurrence in China.) . The processes which nature employs for the preservation of the structure of extinct insects, is one which the microscopist successfully imitates by embalming his delicate dissections in Canada basalm between two slips of glass.  

There is evidence of the extreme antiquity of amber in the fact that the Phoenicians of old fetched it from Prussia. Since that period it has been obtained there uninterruptedly, and no diminution in the quantity annually collected has been perceived. This would almost induce a belief in the correctness of the putrefaction theory, above alluded to, and we may perhaps assume that a constantly new formation of amber is taking place; this view is somewhat strengthened by the different appearance of the varities of amber, which seems to exhibit the successive stages of its development and decay: still this conclusion to many will appear strained. The different kinds of amber are distinguished by varieties of colour and degrees of transparency. It is found of all shades of yellow, from the palest primerose to the deepest orange, or even brown. In point of clearness amber varies from vitreous transparency to perfect opacity, specimens being obtained nearly as white as ivory; in this latter case the transformation is assumed to have advanced further than in the ordinary varieties. It is rarely found, and is chiefly used for cameo ornaments and is mounted on darker amber which forms the background. Several examples of its employment are exhibited in the Prussian Section.

An inquiry naturally suggests itself as to which of those varieties of amber is the most valuable. It is self evident that this must depend, as in the diamond, upon the size and uniformity of the pieces. Besides, as all the varieties excepting the white which has its special uses, are equally applicable for manufacturing purposes, it follows that the value of any particular sort must depend in great measure upon its rarity. The straw-yellow, slightly cloudy, translucent variety is the most rare, and is that which the Orientals prefer to all others, and which they purchase at extravagant prices. There are few specimens of it in the Exhibition and it is needless to search for them in the German Department, as every piece that is found in Prussia is exported to Turkey in the raw or manufactured state; and it is in the section occupied by this latter country (1928, 1929) the only specimens in the Exhibition will be found.


A chunk of yellow amber.
Resin was flowing from trees in the heat of the sun and the volatile components of resin evaporated and made them turbid - thousands of small gas bubbles were formed. These bubbles defract the light forming the yellow colour. In one square millimeter of yellow amber could be 2500 gas bubbles 0.05-0.0025 mm. in diametre. The more bubbles, the lighter the shade of yellow.

Some writers are of opinion that the preference which the orientals show for the pale yellow, slightly clouded variety, has been transmitted to them from the ancients, but their arguments will not bear a close examination.

[...]

Having made these general observations on the chapter of amber, we pass to the detailed consideration of what has been presented to us in the Exhibition under the Class of Pipes and Amber Manufactures. 

GERMANY

No one will be surprised that thus land of smokers bears off the palm in the manufacture of pipes and amber; nor that her exhibitors outnumber those of all other nations collectively. All the States of Germany, however, have not contributed eqully, the pipes being chiefly from Austria, and especially from Vienna, and the amber manufactures from Prussia.

The meerschaum works of the Viennese are unrivaled, as regards taste in design and excellence in execution; the carvings of many of the pipe-bowls and cigar-tubes being examples of highly cultivated art. Most of the fancy pipe-tubes, composed of horn and mother-of-pearl, are more curious than graceful; the cherry-tree tubes are in great variety and are good examples of the long pipe; besides these there are large numbers of bone and wood mouth-pieces, and others made of amber, the latter being beautifully worked.

The meerschaum pipes from Prussia are not numerous, nor are they so elaborate as those of Austria. The Prussian Section present such a series of amber  specimens as are not likely to be again collected; the manufactured amber does not, however, evince much feeling for artistic design on the part of their exhibitors, whose merits rest principally on the excellence and difficulties of the workmanship.

The contributions from the other parts of Germany consist of meerschaum and other pipes from Bavaria, which are not remarkable; porcelain pipes from Hamburg are of fancy forms, and those from Nassau are chiefly plain descriptions, which are sold at exceedingly low prices.

BRITISH COLONIES

British Guiana - T.B> DUGGIN (146, p. 986) send a specimen of a pipe, or rather tube, used by the arborigines for smoking tobacco, calle a Winna; it resembles a cheroot in outward appearance; but it is hollow so as to contain the tobacco. It is said to be made from the rind of the fruit of the Manicole-palm (areca manicot, Lodd.), from the River Berbice. It may be remarked that such tubes, made of paper covered with a leaf of tobacco, are now manufactured in England. 

Canada contributes a collection of well made clay pipes.

The Indian collection contains examples of the costly and beautifullu-ornamented cocoa-nut and lac Hookahs, mounted in silver with their rich tubes or snakes, 

 
A rare Mughal ivory portable Huqqa, India, late 18th Century
The baluster neck rising from an ivory base of cone-shaped form,with mouthpiece and pipe, 29cm. high

Mobile huqqas were designed to be held by the smoker and were in vogue amongst the upper classes from the 17th century on, depicted in minature paintings of the period. For examples see M.Zebrowski, Gold, Silver & Bronze From Mughal India, p. 238, figs. 403, 405.
Courtesy of Bonhams & Butterfields




and the simple pipe composed of two pieces of bamboo, one for the bowl cut close to a knot, and a smaller one for the tube. These primitive pipes are in common use among the poorer natives of India, and yet Dr. Royle cites an extemporary pipe sometimes used by the natives which surpasses even this in simplicity; the amateur makes two holes, one longer than the other, with a piece of stick, in a clay soil, inclining the stick so that they may meet; into the shorter hole he places the tobacco, and applies his mouth to the other, and thus luxuriates in the fumes of the narcotic herb. 

There is, likewise, a specimen of the Singoo opium-pipe which is of very small dimensions, the tube not being larger than a thimble. The opium is placed in the bowl, and ignited by placing a piece of charcoal on it, which is effected with a small pair of tweezers, which finds a place in this interesting and well-arranged collection.

CHINA 

The habit of smoking is very general in China, being common to both sexes in all classes of society, and at all ages. In every part of this cast empire the tobacco plant is cultivated, and consumed both as snuff and for smoking. So prevalent is the habit that little girls and boys are commonly seen smoking, and from this early period it is persevered in by its votaries through life. It is always customary to offer a visitor a cup of tea and a pipe. Mr. Natalis Rondot estimates the numbeer of smokers in CHina as at least 100 millions, and states that pipes are made in enormous numbers, and in an almost infinite variety of forms; they are of three classes, the water-pipe, the straight-pipe and the opium pipe. The Chinese pipes are generally very long, and the bowl very small, it being usually made of nickel-copper (white metal). The only contribution however is from Dr. Berncastle, who sends an opium-pipe and appartenances.

EGYPT

The specimens in the Egyptian Court comprise two Narguilés or water-pipes, out of zinc and one much richer, mounted in silver; also severalpipe-bowls of Assouan and Assiout.

FRANCE
 

The examples consist of clay-pipes only from two exhibitors; they are very numerous, and are exceedingly well manufactured, but their form are not such as to sustain the high reputation for graceful design which this country enjoys. This is to be attributed to the class of persons for whom the pipes are intended, and who prefers a pipe-bowl molded in the form of some grotesque head with staring eyes, to the most elegant figures whcich could be devised. Very large quantities of thse pipes are exported to England, Germany, Italy and the United States, and other countries, and are as much esteemed on account of the very excellent quality of the earthenware of which they are formed. Their superior texture, it appears, is due in some measure to the clay of which they are chiefly composed, but principally to the great skills o the manufacturers in compounding it with other materials. To give some idea of the extent of the pipe manufacture at St-Omer, it may be stated that one of the exhibiting manufactories -  that of DUMERIL, SONS and Co (p. 1181) - employs 450 workpeople, and produces annually 100,000 gross, or nearly fifteen million pipes, varying in price from 1d. per dozen to 3d. each; and that the other - that of L.FIOLET (p. 1184) - employs 850 workpeople, and produces 200,000 gross, or nearly thirty million pipes, consuming 7,874 tons of clay in their manufacture.

PERSIA
 

Mr. J.B. THOMSON (3, p.1426) contributes a Narghili or Narguilé, and a lady's amber mouth-piece, and Mr. J. HUDSON (10, p. 1427) several specimens of pipes, which illustrate the luxurious habits of the Persians in smoking.

SARDINIA

The contributions from this country consist of beautiful examples of carved meerschaum pipe-bowls, which equal those of Austria, but are insignificant in point of number, having been contributed by only one exhibitor.

TURKEY

In the Turkish collection are numerous rich examples of the Narguilé, or water-pipe, in some cases composed of silver, and ornamented with precious stones; the flexible tube, or Marpitch, used with the Narguilé is formed of a spiral wire covered with leather, over which another wire is coiled, so as to fall between the interstices of the inner spiral. The Turks, in smoking the Narguilé, inhale the fumes into the lungs, and never consume the last portion of the tobacco, as the smoke becomes too pungent. There are numerous examples of the long pipe or Kablioun, and the short-pipe, or Chiboque, with the cherry-tree, jasmine, wild-plum, and ebony tubes; and likewise the crude gimblets, with which these tubes, five feet or more in length, are bored. In boring the tube, the Turk places it above the gimblet and thus gets quit of the chips; after boring the hole half way he meets it with the other end of the stick. The wild-cherry tree which is principally used, seldom occurs free from defects in the bark, to repair whcihch, so that the preparation cannot be discovered, is the chief difficulty. There are examples of Lulés or pipe-bowls used with these tubes, they are composed of the red clay of Nish, mixed with the white earth of Roustchouck. They are very graceful in form, and are, in some cases, ornamented with gilding, but as the Turk prefers a fresh bowl each time, the plain ones are chiefly employed in the score of economy. It is not unusual in Turkey to compute distances or rather the duration of a journey by the number of pipes which might be smoked in the time necessary to accomplish it. The imames or amber mouth-pieces exhibited in the Turkish Section surpass those of any other in splendour. 

One exhibitor send four of choice amber, which are worth together 1,000l.; besides these, there are three groups from distinct exhibitors; in the case of one was notices an amber cigar-tube which is one of numerous instances of the innovation upon Turkish customs by the introduction of European ideas. If more awards have not been made for Turkey than those cited in the list, it does not arise from want of meritorious examples, but simply because it was quite impossible to obtain a correct catalogue of exhibitors at the time the Jury examined the articles contributed from this country.

TUNIS

Wees for pipes, and two embroidered pipe-guards, are the only contributions.

TUSCANY

The only example in the Tuscan Section is a beautifully carved ebony pipe-tube.

UNITED KINGDOM

The pipes in the British side of the Exhibition are unimportant; two consist of steel, one is a contrivance for condensing the fumes of the tobacco and the other two are of meerschaum. No common clay-pipes are exhibited; their manufacture forms a distinct branch of the fictile art, and is usually practised by small makers; the processe employed being very simple and performed with wonderful celerity. The stem of the pipe is first formed by rolling a piece of clay with the hand on a slab until it forms a cylinder slightly tapered; a ball of clay is then attached to the thickest end and placed in a mold formed of two halves hinged together, by merly closing the mould the clay assumes the form of the outside of the bol; a plunger corresponding to the intended cavity is then forced in, and the excess of clay iwhich exudes is pared off. The pipe is completed by threading the stem onto a wire, which thus forms the bore, and after drying it is baked in a furnace of peculiar construction.

The number of exhibitors of pipes and amber is forty-nine, of these there are : -


      10 Holders of a Prize Medal.
      18 Who obtained Honourable Mention.
      21 Unrewarded.
   
The number of exhibitors from the various countries is as follows:

     Germany:
           Austria..............13
           Bavaria...............1
           Hamburg............ 1
           Nassau................2
           Prussia..............11
     British Colonies:
           British Guiana.......1
           Canada...............1
           India..................1
     China......................1
     Egypt......................1
     France....................2
     Persia.....................2
     Sardinia...................1
     Turkey....................3
     Tuscany...................1
     United Kingdom.........3

          

LIST OF AWARDS

(note: 1 pound sterling in 1850 is equivalent to approximately 60 pounds in 2013)
 

ALBA, SAMUEL, Vienna (Austria, 664, p. 1041) Honourable Mention is accorded to this exhibition for a very large collection of meerschaum pipe-bowls, cigar-tubes, and amber mouth-pieces. The plain bowls and cigar-tubes, and those ornamented with foliage are very creditable productions, but where human figures are introduced they are not so well executed.
  
ASTRATH, CARL, Vienna (Austria, 666, p. 1041) Prize Medal, for an assortment of most exquisite specimens of meerschaum pipe-bowls and cigar-tubes; the sculpturing of the figures displaying remarkable artistic skill, and execution of the leafage being bold and sharp. Considering the excellence of the work, the prices are very moderate (10,243 30s; 10,208, 45s.; cigar-tube with figure of Venus, 45s. another with that of Hercules, 53s.) Besides the above, the collection comprises several of the richest amber mouth-pieces, one of which is valued at 33l.; some of the mouth-pieces are flat, such as used in Germany, others round, such as used in the East.
  
BEISIEGEL, PHILIP, Vienna (Austria, 667, p. 1042) Honourable Mention. For meerschaum pipes with silver mounts and amber mouth-pieces; meerschaum pipe-bowls and cigar-tubes; cherry-tree and ebony pipe-tubes, and plain amber mouth-pieces which are all very well manufactures, and of good design.

DUMERIL, SONS, and Co., St. Omer, Pas-de-Calais (France, 176, p. 1181) -   Honourable Mention. For a great variety of clay-pipes, such as are used buy the worrking classes, and more particularly by the peasantry. These pipes are more remarkable for their cheapness and very excellent manufacture than for any beauty of design.

FIOLET, LOUIS, St. Omer, Pas-de-Calais ( France, 211, p. 1184) - Honourable Mention. For a large assortment of clay-pipes exceedingly well made. The bowls are mostly in the form of heads, some intentionally grotesque, and others intended to represent eminent personages, scarcely less so, on account of the eyes being picked with two dabs of black. these pipes are not remarkable for any of that excellent taste displayed by the French.

FLOGE, GERHARD, Vienna (Austria, 673, p.1042) - Prize Medal. Carved meerschaum pipe-bowls and cigar-tubes in great variety and of excellent designs and execution; also a large collection of amber for smoking purposes, including the round mouth-piece use in Turkey.

FRIEDRICH, JOHANN, Vienna (Austria, 671, p. 1042) Prize Medal. A very large assortment of meerschaum pipe-bowls and cigar-tubes, with amber mouth-pieces of beautiful designs, frequently containing several figures, which are exquisitely and boldly sculptured. The prices which vary from 17s., 6d. to 7l. 10s. each, are reasonable.

GRUNHUT, J., jun., Prague (Austria, 673, p.1042) - Honourable Mention is accorded 
for a meerschaum pipe-bowl and two cigar-tubes, the carving of which is very sharp and spirited.

HADJI, MIRHAN DUZOGLOU (Turkey, 1928, 1929, p. 1398) - Prize Medal. For four most splendid imames or round amber mouth-pieces, richly ornamented with brilliants; the two shortest, which in smoking are pressed against the lips are each worth 305l., and are of that peculiar colour and degree of transparency which approaches nearest to the Turkish ideal of beauty; the two longer mouth-pieces are of a different form, and although not of so good a colour, nor enriched with as many diamonds, are yet worth 200l., each.

HARTMANN, LUDWIG, Vienna (Austria, 675, p.1042) - Prize Medal. For a very large collection of well-made mouth-pieces of amber, mother-of-pearl, bone and wood; cherry-tree and other pipe-tubes; hard-wood cigar tubes from 1d. to 21/2d. each; walking-sticks from 9d. to 7s. 6d. each; meerschaum pipe-bowls and cigar-tubes; the foregoing articles are those in general use in Germany, and consequently they are not elaborately ornamented.

HENDERSON - Montreal (Canada, 187, p. 968) - Honourable Mention is accorded for a case of well-made clay-pipes.

LUX BROTHERS, Rhula, Saxe Gotha (Prussia, 438, p. 1075) - Honourable Mention. For a great variety of plain meerschaum pipe-bowls, imitation meerschaum  bowls, painted porcelain bowls,  and carved wood pipes.

MANNHEIMER, WOLFF, Konigsberg (Prussia, 438, p. 1075). - Honourable Mention (he same award by the Jury of Class I) For the exhibition of two unusually large pieces of amber; one of which is a speciment of that sort obtained in the amber pits, and has a rough exterior; it weighs 6 lbs. the other is marine amber, and is water-worn; it weighs 4 1/2 lbs.

MULLENBACH and THEWALD, Hoehr (Nassau, 10, p. 1132) Honourable Mention for remarkably cheap clay pipes, varying in price from 6d. to 2s. per hundred.

NAIM EFFENDI, Constantinople (Turkey, 1441, 1447, p. 1396). - Prize Medal for a valuable collection of amber mouth-pieces, for the chiboque or long pipe, ornamented with rings of artificial adventurine and with jewels; the price of these vary according to the size and colour of the mouth-piece, the lowest being 37s. 6d., and the highest 35l.; and also for a collection of jasmine pipe-tubes.

PARTSCH, A., jun., Theresienfeld (Austria, 124, 125, p. 1300). - Honourable Mention. For an assortment of cheap clay-pipe-bowls, coloured and glazed.

ROMOLI, LUIGI, York Terrace, Chelsea (Tuscany, 124, 125, p. 1300).- Honourable Mention. For an ebony pipe-tube, wrought in pierced carved work.

SAID AGA (Turkey, 3369, 3372, p. 1399).- Honourable Mention. For an assortment of those amber mouth-pieces which are in most general use in Turkey, and which vary in price from 10s. to 30s. ; also an amber cigar-tubes; and a large collection of pipe-tubes,  and wood mouth-pieces.

STRAUSS, J., Turin (sardinia, 80, p. 1305) - Prize Medal. For several elaborately-carved meerschaum pipe-bowls, the sculpturing of which is exquisite.     

WINGENDER BROTHERS, Hoehr (Nassau, 9, p.1132) - Honourable Mention is accorded for an assortment of various descriptions of clay-pipes, intended chiefly for exportation, and which are remarkable for their low price, 5s. 6d. per thousand.

WINTERFELD, J. A., Breslau (Prussia, 204, p. 1059), - Prize Medal. For the largest collection of amber-manufactures, the workmanship  of which is exceedingly good: also a collection of most of the varieties of raw amber. The manufactures comprises amber mouth-pieces; large pipe-tubes, composed entirely of amber; amber cigar-tubes;  ear-rings [...]

WOBECKE, H. (Hamburg, 89, p. 1139) - Honourable Mention. For a collection of well-made pipes manufactured with Turkish clay.

ZEITLER, JOSEPH, Vienna (Austria, 687,p. 1042). - Prize Medal. Massa pipe-bowls and cigar-tubes, which are manufactured from meerschaum dust. The forms of these articles are elegant, and the execution so good that they are distinguished only with difficulty from the real meerschaum. The price of massa pipe-bowls is much lower than those of the real meerschaum, and they are usually mounted with plated instead of real silver tops.  




Many thanks to the Science Museum of London for providing access to the Reports of the Juries).