In 1848, the newly established Smithsonian Institution, chose as its first publication Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley,
an archeological study of the prehistoric indigenous mound builders of North America by Edwin Hamilton Davis,
and Ephraim George Squier.
the result of the first XIXth century "scientific" exploration of North America's heritage,
|In the altar mound, No. 8, "Mound City" a treasure trove of pipes was unearthed. Mound City is located along the Ohio River in Pulaski County, Illinois|
|John Egan and Dr. Dickeson’s Panorama of the Monumental Grandeur of the Mississippi Valley |
Detail of 'Monumental Grandeur of the Mississippi Valley' (1850) by John Egan, showing excavations beneath a mound.
among the artifacts excavated were stone carvings of exceptional artistry,
|cf Fig 138. Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley|
mica ornaments of powerful significance,
|Carved mica hand, Hopewell Mounds|
pipe bowls representing human heads with deep scarification,
artfully shaped "platform" pipes,
animals roaming the woods and rivers at that time,
and other fauna...
Fifty years later the excavation of the Adena Mound in Ohio would unearth another extraordinry pipe masterpiece from the earlier native american Adena culture (800 BC - AD 100).
All photos of pipes courtesy Ohio Historical Society