Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Peace Pipe from the Greenville Treaty of 1795

On August 20, 1794, an American confederate army 




commanded by Anthony Wayne 






defeated a Native American force led by Blue Jacket of the Shawnee






at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.






An 1896 depiction of the battle from Harper's Magazine.


A year later, representatives from twelve tribes met at Greenville to finalize the negotiations with Wayne. 




Among the leaders were Little Turtle of the Miamis, 






Tarhe of the Wyandots,






and Blue Jacket and Black Hoof of the Shawnees.





Black Hoof from a lithograph published in History of the Indian Tribes of North America.

There was little doubt as to who held the strongest position in these negotiations.

The intent of this treaty, as stated, was to "restore harmony and friendly intercourse" between the United States and American Indians. The natives agreed to relinquish all claims to land south and east of a boundary that began roughly at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. The whites agreed to relinquish their claims to land north and west of the line, although the natives permitted the Americans to establish several trading posts.






Among the issues addressed in the treaty are trade and hunting rights and the exchange of prisoners. Another provision of the treaty states that any tribe that wishes to relinquish its land must sell it to the United States. The treaty measures 7.75 by 12.75 inches (19.69 by 32.39 cm). 



This copy of the Treaty of Greenville is dated August 3, 1795.




On August 3, 1795, leaders of the Wyandot Indians, the Delaware Indians, the Shawnee Indians, the Ottawa Indians, the Miami Indians, the Eel River Indians, the Wea Indians, the Chippewa Indians, the Potawatomi Indians, the Kickapoo Indians, the Piankashaw Indians, and the Kaskaskia Indians gathered in Greenville 

 







to formally sign the treaty.




A ceremonial peace pipe was passed around to seal the agreement.



The Greenville Peace Pipe is the historic calumet which was ceremoniously smoked by General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, hi staff and officers and ninety Indian chiefs. The pipe may be seen at the Ohio State Museum in Columbus.



The Greenville Treaty Calumet is made of catlinite with inlaid lead or pewter decorations. 





The carved pipe stem appears to be ash.


The calumet, or pipe, is in two pieces, with the elaborately carved wooden stem separated from the stone and lead bowl. The entire calumet is 40 inches long and about 3 and a half wide. The first picture shows the bowl of the pipe; the second the stem.



The calumet was presented to General Wayne who gave it to his aide, Captain Ezra Kendall, shortly before his death. It was handed down in the family by Kendall's descendants until 1914 when it was presented to the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society by Captain Alva Kendall Overturf.


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