Monday, February 9, 2015

Peace Pipes from the Greenville Treaty of 1814

As the War of 1812 extended into 1814, the U.S. Government directed Major General William Henry Harrison

This portrait of Harrison originally showed him in civilian clothes as the congressional delegate from the Northwest Territory in 1800, but the uniform was added after he became famous in the War of 1812.

and Lewis Cass, governor of Michigan Territory, 

to negotiate with once hostile tribes interested in changing their allegiance. 

Meeting at Greenville on July 22, 1814, with the Wyandot, Delaware, Shawanoese

A Shawanese Chief


Chief Cornplanter, portrait by Frederick Bartoli, 1796

and Miami tribes, the United States negotiated the following agreement:

" The tribes and bands abovementioned, engage to give their aid to the United States in prosecuting the war against Great-Britain, and such of the Native American tribes as still continue hostile; and to make no peace with either without the consent of the United States. The assistance herein stipulated for, is to consist of such number of their warriors from each tribe, as the president of the United States, or any officer having his authority therefor, may require.

In return,

"The United States will confirm and establish all the boundaries between their lands and those of the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoese, and Miamies, as they existed previously to the commencement of the war."

There are three known Peace Pipes which were presented on July 8, 1814 by General Harrison. These large silver pipes were elegantly shaped, ornamented and (simply) engraved with emblems signifying the protection and friendship of the United States.

The first one was presented to the Delaware Tribe of Indians. (native name: Lenape).

Peace pipe presented to the Delaware Indians by Gen. William Henry Harrison in 1814. Bequest of Victor J. Evans. In Bureau of American Ethnology. National Museum of Natural History. (Acc. 113604, cat. 362061; Smithsonian photos 44571, 44571-A.)

It is very likely that a senior leader of the Delaware Tribe by the name Ho-Po-Cam ("Tobacco Pipe") 

"The sculpture commemorates Chief Konieschquanoheel (aka Hopocan, Tobacco Pipe) of the Delaware natives, and is installed where the tribe established their camp after they were driven from the banks of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania. The site was chosen by city officials who believed it to be an important junction on the Portage Path, a Native American trail leading from Lake Erie to the Ohio River. The path, however, passed Barberton to the east, near Summit and Nesmith Lakes."

and nicknamed Captain Pipe by the colons, attended such ceremony and thoroughly enjoyed the elegance of this presentation pipe...

Konieschquanoheel of the Delaware natives aka Tobacco Pipe aka Captain Pipe

The second Peace Pipe was presented by Harrison to the Seneca Tribe of Indians,

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