Friday, November 27, 2015

Exposition Universelle Paris 1867

In the early 1860's, in the middle of the renovation of Paris by the Baron Haussman

The new Avenure de l'Opéra one of the first renovations by Haussman

the Second Empire under Napoléon III was at the height of its glory.


Napoléon III in 1867

 Napoléon III decreed that Paris would hold the International Exposition of 1867, called "Exposition universelle [d'art et d'industrie] de 1867".














As immortalized by Edouart Manet,


Manet, "A View of the 1867 Exposition Universelle," 1867. Oil on canvas, Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, Norway

Among the inventions presented at the Exposition, the scaphander by Benoît Rouquayrol and Auguste Denayrouze,






 would fascinate Jules Vernes and inspire his 20,000 leagues under the Sea science fiction novel.



 
For the first time a Japanese delegation of dignitaries attended an Exposition Universelle,




and Japanese exhibitors exposed the visitors to Japanese art and prints.


Chinese and Japanese exhibits at the 1867 Exposition Universelle.

 Among the visitors, the painter Claude Monet,


Claude Monet poses in front of his beloved collection of Japanese woodblocks in Giverny.


Ando Hiroshige, "Sudden Shower over O-Hashi", Claude Monet Collection


Madame Monet, by Claude Monet, 1875


and Vincent Van Gogh,

 
Le Père Tanguy by Vincent Van Gogh, 1887. Le Père Tanguy sits in front of six japanese prints.


At the closing ceremony, Napoléon III posed with visiting dignitaries,





The Report from the International Jury provided an overview of the world of Pipes, Cheroot Holders and Snuff Boxes in 1867.

The report of MM. S. Say and Renard in 1855, 25, class and Mr. Barral in 1862, class 4 (Section XI) are very comprehensive in the history of the pipes industry. They include a variety of products which, by the classification adopted in 1867, are divided between class 26 and class 91.


We find, indeed, in the first class, the meerschaum pipes and carved amber parts whose manufacture has expanded considerably in recent years.


§ 1. - Pipes, cigar-case.


We reviewed in Chapter III manufacturers of smokers accessories, identified in the Statistics of Parisian Industry in 1860.


At that time, 32 manufacturers, with 286 workers, made a figure of 2,656,412 francs business.


The ten-hour day is now paying for the sculptors, from 9 to 20 francs; for workers cutters, turners, etc., 5 to 9 francs, and for women, 2 to 5 francs.


It is only since 1850 that this industry has taken some importance in Paris. It was established by the Viennese whose talent was transformed by the attendance of our artists, and today who excel in their profession. On the other hand, the most skillful sculptor of Vienna came to spend several years in Paris to perfect himself in his art, and it is easy to recognize his way of doing, in the windows of Vienna's major manufacturers. It is between Vienna and Paris that the market shares these items. We must recognize that, for common pipes, this industry still new in France, hardly supports a fight with the powerful factories in Vienna. With the carved meerschaum pipes, we take the advantage. Our taste for innovation and artistic originality reveals and lifts us above our rivals; but not on these parts of a higher price than the consumer rolls and Viennese manufacturers keep big business for export. This is explained by comparing the days of workers in Vienna and Paris. Note that for the rich pipes, that is to say sculpted, the price of labor is almost the same in both cities. We have the advantage of artistic resources within our capital, and our work is superior. In the manufacture of ordinary goods, on the contrary, we are facing a substantial industry that finds workers for 15 francs and even 10 francs per week, 1 fr. 65 c. per day. We understand the difficulties faced by our manufacturers to produce, with a minimum of 5 francs per day, pipes whose price does not exceed that of rival products. It is however not insurmountable and, in class 91, there are average qualities in which, at the same price, we win by the finish. 

Five manufacturers form an exhibition of the most interesting in its variety. One feels, in each of them, an original and intelligent direction assisted by skilled sculptors and special in this kind of work.

MM. Bondier, and Ulrich Donninger exposed, amidst remarkable pipes, a coat of arms in carved amber by the hands of Mr. Perron, who is originally from Bavaria. This company, which is the largest in the Paris production in this genre, has revenues of 500,000 francs.


Mr. Six is ​​a leading Viennese who, in 1852, imported in France his industry. Its window contains items that have a character quite apart from items that are found everywhere.The progress he has engineered in this industry are of different types. The relationships he has established with Turkey for the direct purchase of raw material, the classification of plain pipes by numbers according to the German system, and the development of the waxing process, are aspects that have earned him the approval of connoisseurs.


Mr. Sommer has exhibited a collection of amber cheroot holders of great delicacy, with sculptures of figures and coats of arms.


The former Lenouvel, currently MM. Desbois and Weber, known by their department store on the Place de la Bourse, have a very important exhibition of sculpture. Their mounts are also very remarkable works of jewelry, which harmonize perfectly with the beautiful pieces of amber that they presented.


The inventor of the sanitary pipe, which protects the smoker against the danger of absorbing nicotine L. Goetsch was noticed by a collection of pipes composed of busts of famous people, quite accomplished as portraits: Louis XIV, Racine, etc. ., but one wonders if it would not have been better to choose other characters. A Leda made of
carved amber is the most important part of this exhibition.

We recognize in our manufacturers a great superiority over their rivals, and marked progress  compared to previous exhibitions. They reached the highest limits of know-how. A better result can be achieved by calling upon artists with superior skill at designing new models: skilled sculptors of our manufacturers, inspired by more varied subjects and also better suited to the use for which they are intended, that of producing real masterpieces.


§ 2. - Snuff.


Since fashion has enabled people of the world the use of cigars, snuff
has become a luxury and this industry is rather conspicuous by the perfection of the work rather than by its importance. A considerable portion of tobacco boxes exceeds our expectations: those in gold and silver, which are in another class; but we have to appreciate the transparent tortoiseshell snuff boxes and those of so-called half-shell sheet. It is obtained by heating two shell plates between which a horn plate is placed, and which are compressed with heat and pressure. The top and bottom are made this way, the side is powdered tortoiseshell. These snuff boxes, though of a very lower price, have as much in appearance as those made of shell, but they are of a less reliable use. You can incrust them like the most beautiful snuff-boxes, and they have completely replaced the old ones which were made entirely of shell powder and had no transparency.

The snuffbox of Paris is manufactured from roots and palm wood, olive tree, maple, cedar, Zéen oak, ivory, tortoiseshell, veneered wood, or marbled horn. 

Just look at Mr. Mercier's showcase to realize the care, skill and taste that drive his manufacturing and gave it a universal reputation. Not just outside; inside these boxes and even the hinges are lined with shell, and the hermetic seals are very soft. 

In 1827, a day of work in the 12 to 15 factories that existed at that time was 3 fr.50-4 francs a day: while the beautiful wood snuffbox was selling for 80 to 60 francs. 

Today, the day of labor is 5 to 7 francs per day, and products better made than those mentioned above are selling 20 to 30 francs. Many workers in this line of work do it from home and earn from 8 to 9 francs, whereas formerly they could hardly earn more than 5 to 7 francs.

Snuff boxes of Saint-Claude is a very important production: 1,000 or 1,200 workers manufacture 125,000 dozen per year. Prices vary between 1 fr. 25 c. the dozen and 12, even 15 francs; those tortoiseshell lined worth 4 to 20 francs the dozen. The snuff horn is 3 to 10 francs. There, as in Paris, the best workers work in their own room, and sell directly to merchants of Paris, Lyon and Geneva. They earn from 5 to 6 francs a day.


They manufacture the so-called
Brittany snuff-boxes in Rennes, in white or gray horn; its main merit is in its strength, but the shape is often poor.

We come upon snuff boxes made of cardboard, whose main factories are in Sarreguemines and Forbach. The lightness and cheapness insure them great consumption, but the hinges and closures are far inferior to those of snuff boxes made out of horn. 


MEERSCHAUM PIPES.

Who is the smoker who does not stop a few minutes at the Champ de Mars in front of the shop where carvers and turners MM. Cardon and Illat work meerschaum? And this station is all the more interesting that just like most trades so ingeniously installed by Mr. Haas, one can follow the series of operations that make a shapeless bleached earth into an elegant pipe decorated with a piece of amber, that manufacturers sell 15, 20, 30 and 40 francs. Using the lathe, a worker cuts down the block, and first draws the bowl and the stem; Drilling is done in the same way; the glass of the lamp is surrounded by a globe filled with water wherein some copper Bel grains were dissolved, giving a soft green light. A shape is roughly given, the cutter clears the part that connects the bowl to the stem, work that can not be done with the lathe. The pipe is then given to the  presleuses who, using a rugged herb called presle, rub down and remove the rough edges. It then remains only to dip the pipe in a white wax bath to give it solidity and submit it to a final polishing, which is obtained using Vienna porphyrised lime. A piece of turned and polished amber complements the pipe. But this is the ordinary product. Typically, the meerschaum is sculpted; because of its brittle nature, it must be immersed in water as it becomes easy to work and lends itself to every whim of the chisel. You can see at the Exposition some very finely carved examples, which have the merit of being by nature originals.


The production of meerschaum pipes is a very contemporary conquest we did it a few years ago, the Austrian monopoly, through the efforts and skill of several industrial, at whose head he is very fair to place Mr. Cardon, the exhibitor of class 95. In 1855 in the middle of the show, Mr. Cardon left his business, founded three years earlier to get in the middle of Asia Minor, Anatolia, to a meerschaum pit he had been told about. Undeterred by the expense, fatigue, dangers of such a journey, Mr. Cardon arrived in Anatolia and recognized a significant deposit of this precious land. After a few months he returned to France, bringing with him a still unknown industry in France. He summoned Austrian turners, cutters, presleuses, and set up a workshop to which he added French sculptors. Today, next to Mr. Cardon, who employs twenty workers, several manufacturers have appeared that benefited from his efforts and his initiative. The sculptors earn 15 to 20 francs a day, turners and cutters, 7 to 10 francs, the presleuses 5-6 francs, and now, thanks to the boldness of a French industrialist, a new industry is acclimatized in France. It is now in full prosperity.


Mr. Cardon wanted to make everyone enjoy his trip to Anatolia. - Under the title "Museum of Smoking," it brought together some notes on the history of tobacco and memories of East These pages, unpretentious written, are read from the first to the last, as everything is marked at the corner of the mind and common sense.


We can to turn to US newspapers to get an additional perspective on the fair. 

From the Journal of Commerce, Jan 30, 1867:

"There is now an exhibition at Kaldenberg & Son's, 6 John  Street, a meerschaum pipe designed for the Paris Exposition. It was made in this country and the carving on it will do credit to American workmanship. This pipe itself is eleven inches in length and the amber mouthpiece eight inches long and two inches thick. The carving on the trunk of the pipe represents the meeting of Macbeth with the witches on their way from the battle field. The figures are four inches in height. Surmounting the bowl, Shakespeare is represented seated in a chair, looking down upon the scene - the offspring of his own brain. The likeness of the great dramatist is ingenuously imitated, and the whole idea well carried out. It is understood that the famous worker in meerschaum Lenouvel of Paris will also have specimen at the Exposition. Many judges however think it doubtful if any of his work in this time will eclipse this specimen of American carving."






This pipe is a facsimile of one of the pipes sent to the Paris Exposition and received the Prize there in competition with over ninety other manufacturers from Vienna, Dresden, Ruhla, Paris, Munich and London.




It is a scene from Shakespeare's Macbeth,  and represents the meeting of Macbeth and the three witches , with a fine portrait of Shakespeare on the cover. Designed and executed by F. Kaldenberg.





The pipe's location today if it has survived the passage of time is unknown.



Wednesday, November 25, 2015

Portfolio of Pipes painted by George Catlin (1852)



Portfolio of pipes painted on cardboard by George Catlin in 1852 with hand- written text, front of portfolio.

A selection of Indian pipes in “Catlin’s North American Indian Collection,” with drawings made and colored from the originals, by his own hand.

The males amongst the North American Indians all smoke, using instead of tobacco, several narcotics, such as inner bark of Red Willow, sumach leaves & c. which they call “k’nick-k’neck”, when it is prepared for smoking; to which, when they can get it, they add a small portion of tobacco.

Each man manufactures his own pipe, the bowl of which is generally carved in spar, in marble, stealite or potstone, found in their countries.

Pipes amongst the Am Indians are not only matters of luxury in the hands of all private individuals, where they are always emblems of peace and tendered as friendly salutations; but are kept in all tribes by the chiefs, as instruments for solemnizing Treaties; in which case they are public property considered sacred, and denominated “Calumets,” (or pipe of peace).

The Barrow pipes of America which are exceedingly crude show that smoking amongst the North Am Indians has been a very ancient custom: and the pipes of their recent sculpture seen in the following drawings, show distinctly their progress of manufacture.

Twenty-three paintings, each with a page of description, are bound in a full red leather portfolio which is decorated in gold and black.

© The Trustees of the British Museum

A book with similar drawings is John C. Ewers, "Indian Art in Pipestone. George Catlin's Portfolio in the British Museum" (Smithsonian, 1979).





plate 1. selection of Barrow pipes and pipe bowls.
Hand written text, front of portfolio.
A selection of Indian pipes in “Catlin’s North American Indian Collection”: with drawings made and coloured from the originals, by his own hand.
The males amongst the North American Indians all smoke, using instead of tobacco, several narcotics, such as inner bark of Red Willow, sumach leaves & c. which they call “k’nick-k’neck”, when it is prepared for smoking; to which, when they can get it, they add a small portion of tobacco.
Each man manufactures his own pipe, the bowl of which is generally carved in spar, in marble, stealite or potstone, found in their countries.
Pipes amongst the Am Indians are not only matters of luxury in the hands of all private individuals, where they are always emblems of peace and tendered as friendly salutations; but are kept in all tribes by the chiefs, as instruments for solemnizing Treaties; in which case they are public property considered sacred, and denominated “Calumets”, (or pipe of peace).
The Barrow pipes of Am which are exceedingly rude show that smoking amongst the North Am Indians has been a very ancient custom: and the pipes of their recent sculpture seen in the following drawings, show distinctly their progress of manufacture.
Twenty-three paintings, each with a page of description, are bound in a full red leather portfolio which is decorated in gold and black.

© The Trustees of the British Museum


Plate 2. selection of Barrow pipes and pipe bowls, featuring humans, animals and bird.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 3. view of the Red Pipe Stone Quarry; known as Pipestone National Monument in the valley of Pipestone Creek, Minnesota. Native men on ridge above, several others are below working and sitting; tipi nearby.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 4. pair of hands boring a pipe; bracelet and shirt sleeve with fringe could be seen.

© The Trustees of the British Museum
 



Plate 5. selection of decorated Sioux pipe stems.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 6. four decorated Sioux pipes, two with Eagle quills.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 7. Pawnee, Sioux, Konza and Ojibbeway decorated pipe bowls made from red pipe stone; featuring animals, pots and people.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 8. five decorated pipe bowls featuring men, bears, and a woman; below is a decorated tomahawk pipe.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 9. eight decorated Sioux pipe stems, one featuring a Buffalo chase.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 10. Sioux, Cheyenne and Ojibbeway decorated pipe stems.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 11. Nayas Pipes, from Queen Charlotte's Island and Sound, British Columbia.Quote from Catlin; "Nayas Indians were the Haida who began to quarry the black slate (argillite) from a single site at the foot of Skidigate Inlet before 1820".

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 12. selection of Sioux and Konza decorated pipes and pipe heads; some featuring man, woman, bird and animals.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 13. pouches made from the skin of small animals; used for carrying tobacco, smoking barks and weeds.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 14. a pipe in three sections, decorated with hunting, battle and domestic scenes; belonging to Nee-hee-o-woo-tis (the Wolf on the Hill) Chief of the Cheyennes.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 15. a group of Mandan decorated pipes and pipe heads; featuring men, women, pots and bird.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 16. two "Medecine" (mystery) pipes of the Mandans.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




plate 17. smoking apparatus of Ha-na-tah Nu-mauhk (Wolf Chief), head civil chief of the Mandans.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 18. pipe of red pipe stone, Otter skin pouch and war belt made of shell wampum belonging to Mah-to-toh-pa (Four Bears) War chief of the Mandans.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 19. bead belt, decorated tomahawk pipe and pouch belonging to Black Hawk, Sauk and Fox Chief.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 20. Eehk-tohk-pa-she-pee-shaw, (Black Mocasin), chief of the Minatarrees, upper missouri; sitting, wrapped in skin robe and holding a long decorated pipe in front of a small fire. Next to him is a man, woman and child; on the post at the rear, hangs a buffalo robe, bonnet, shield and a pouch with bow and arrows.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 21. selection of Sioux, Winnebago and Pawnee pipes and pipe heads made from red pipe stone.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 22. painted buffalo robe featuring a pipe, buffalos, battle scene and men on horses.

© The Trustees of the British Museum




Plate 23. painted buffalo robe featuring tipis, horse, men carrying Beaver or Otter skins while others are smoking pipes; women standing in the distance; stars and quarter moon above.

© The Trustees of the British Museum



Saturday, November 21, 2015

Wolf and Mathiss catalog, Paris, 1890-1900


Every collector of antique pipes knows that pipe factory and retail store catalogs from the 1800s - early 1900s are as rare as hen's teeth to find...and an even rarer occasion, when found complete and in good to better condition. This fragile catalog from this little-known French manufactory, merchandised its pipes with the logo of a triangle bearing the letters "C C Paris" embossed in fitted cases. Cases with this logo are known, but the Wolf and Mathiss name, until now, was not known as the factory behind the retail establishment.

Wolf & Mathiss was originally known as Cawley & Henry, a pipe manufacturer founded in 1867.




The product line was fairly robust, catering to not only pipe and cigar smokers, but also to cigarette consumers, because the catalog includes cigarette rolling papers that, according to company information, had received silver medals at two expositions, Anvers (1885) and Paris (1889).






Since Wolf & Mathiss received a silver medal at the Exposition Universelle, Paris, 1900, this catalog can be more precisely dated between 1890 and 1900.






 





































































































Courtesy of Blatter & Blatter, Montreal, Canada (www.blatterpipes.com)