Sunday, April 29, 2012

Columbus Pipe

The William Demuth Company of New York (WDC) claimed to be the largest meerschaum pipe production company in the United States. 


It exhibited at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia with nothing exceptional in pipes, but it commissioned the Columbus pipe for the Columbian Fair in 1893 in Chicago that took two years to make. 

Aerial view of the Columbian Fair, Chicago, 1893

Sailing from Spain arrived replicas of the Pinta, Santa Maria and Niña,

Pinta, Santa Maria, Niña, replicas from Spain. Lying in the North River, New York. The caravels which, crossed from Spain to be present at the World's Fair at Chicago, 1892. Source: Andrews, E. Benjamin. History of the United States, volume V. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 1912.
Also anchored at the World Fair was a replica of the Gokstad Viking ship,

Inside the main pavilion, stood the massive carved meerschaum pipe commissioned by William Demuth Company.

This pipe depicts Christopher Columbus claiming the new land for the Spanish empire, alongside his shipmates, a priest, and Native Americans [altogether, 21 high- and low-relief-carved figures]. The pipe measures 35.5 inches (89 cm) in length overall, 9 inches (22.5 cm) in height, and 5 inches (12.5 cm) in diameter. A meerschaum coloring bowl with three air holes is carved in the shape of palm fronds. The very ornately crafted, sectional mouthpiece consisting of 8 alternating clear and cloudy amber beaded bands and 5 amber ferrules, is 20 inches (50 cm) in length. 


Why a pipe in honor of this event? 

This exposition was all about commemorating the 400th anniversary of the landing of Columbus, 1492-1893. 

The conceptual idea for this pipe may have been any of a number of artists’ renderings of this explorer coming to America:

- Perhaps Johann Moritz Rugendas’ painting, “Columbus Landing in the New World,” also identified as "Columbus taking possession of the New World" (1855) which is on view at the Neue Pinakothek, Munich, Germany. 

(Rugendas has been quoted as having said: “I feel this role of interpreter. I worked hard and wanted to be the illustrator of the new lands discovered by Columbus in the New World.");

- or an actual 19th century national banknote described as follows:

"5s.—Columbus introducing America to Europe, Asia, and Africa,—the countries represented by female figures. Columbus discovering America; four men. 5 on right end, Five on left end. Reverse side.—Landing of Columbus and men. Spread eagle on right; arms of the State on left; Five and 5 on each end.";

- or the 12' by 18' painting
The Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn (1775 – 1852)

Self-portrait, John Vanderlyn, 1800

commissioned by Congress in 1836, completed in 1846 and installed in the Capitol Rotunda in 1847,
The Landing of Columbus, John Vanderlyn
Oil on canvas, 12' x 18'
1846; placed 1847
"My picture in the Rotunda is admitted to be inferior to none, if not superior." The artist stated in 1839, as quoted in Schoonmaker, John Vanderlyn, Artist, 1775-1852; A Biography, 1950  

The painting is described in details on Architect of the Capitol:

"In this painting, Christopher Columbus and members of his crew are shown on a beach in the West Indies, the first landfall of their expedition to find a westward route from Europe to China, Japan, and perhaps unknown lands. On October 12, 1492, they reached this island, which the natives called Guanahani and Columbus named San Salvador.

The setting of the painting is a narrow beach at the edge of a wooded bay or inlet. Columbus, newly landed from his flagship Santa Maria, looks upward as if in reverent gratitude for the safe conclusion of his long voyage. With his left hand he raises the royal banner of Aragon and Castile, claiming the land for his Spanish patrons, and with his right he points his sword at the earth. He stands bareheaded, with his feathered hat at his feet, in an expression of humility. 

The other Europeans grouped near Columbus represent various classes of society. Behind Columbus and to his right, the captains of the ships Niña and Pinta carry the banner of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, and a friar holds up a metal cross. To his left, a sailor kneels, gazing upward, and a soldier looks warily into the woods, where native West Indians watch the visitors from behind a tree. Farther behind Columbus, a cabin boy kneels and a mutineer bows in a penitent attitude. Throughout the central group soldiers carry spears, and the inspector of armament shoulders a musket. At the left side of the painting, more crew members land a small boat as their comrades display a range of reactions, some seeming jubilant at reaching the shore and others eagerly seeking to pluck gold from the sand.

In the foreground of the scene, a fallen tree and spiky, broad-leafed plants suggest that a new and unknown world begins only a few paces from the explorers’ feet. At the right edge of the painting, the natives blend into the forest of tall deciduous trees. Palm trees can be seen near the water’s edge in the middle distance and along the top of the hill at the horizon. Out on the ocean lie the expedition’s three ships, silhouetted against a rising sun.

The Landing of Columbus (detail)

American neoclassicist painter John Vanderlyn (1775–1852) was commissioned by Congress in June 1836 to paint The Landing of Columbus for the Capitol Rotunda. He worked on this canvas at his studio in Paris with the help of assistants. Upon its completion in the late summer of 1846 he reportedly hoped to exhibit the painting in various principal cities, but by October 3 he had arrived with it in New York, and it was installed in the Rotunda by early January 1847.

The painting has undergone various cleaning, revarnishing, relining, repair, and restoration treatments over a dozen times since its installation. In 1982 the painting was attached to an aluminum panel to help it resist the effects of changes in temperature and humidity. All of the Rotunda paintings were most recently cleaned in 2008.

This painting may be Vanderlyn’s most widely distributed work. In 1869 it appeared on a 15-cent stamp (which, with a brown frame and blue center vignette, was the first bi-color stamp issued by the United States), and in 1893 it was used on a 2-cent stamp among the nation’s first commemorative stamps, the Columbian Exposition Issue. It also appeared on the reverse of a 5-dollar bank note issued in the 1870s.

John Vanderlyn was born at Kingston, New York, on October 18, 1775. He studied under renowned portrait artist Gilbert Stuart and became a protegé of Aaron Burr, who in 1796 sent him for five years’ study in Paris—making him the first American painter to study there rather than in England. Returning to the United States in 1801, he painted portraits and landscapes. Two years later he traveled back to Europe and painted in England, Rome, and Paris, where his painting Marius amid the Ruins of Carthage was awarded a gold medal. In 1815 he resumed his work in America, exhibiting panoramas and painting portraits. His subjects were chiefly prominent Americans, including Robert R. Livingston, James Monroe, John C. Calhoun, George Clinton, Andrew Jackson, and Zachary Taylor; his 1834 full-length portrait of George Washington (after Gilbert Stuart) is displayed in the Hall of the House of Representatives in the U.S. Capitol. Landing of Columbus would the last major work of his career, which fell into decline. He died in poverty in Kingston on September 23, 1852."

A similar scene is illustrated on the 15 cents stamp of the famous Pictorial Issue of 1869, released during the first weeks of the Grant administration and the first edition of stamps to depict historical scenes in lieu of the portraits of U.S. Presidents. 

1-cent Franklin, the 6-cent Washington and the 90-cent Lincoln. The other seven denominations contain a variety of images. Three stamps illustrate means of postal transportation: delivery on horseback (2-cent), by locomotive (3-cent) and by steamship (12-cent). Two others present historical tableaux drawn from famous paintings of crucial national events: John Vanderlyn's Landing of Columbus (15-cent) and John Trumbull's Signing of the Declaration of Independence (24-cent). The remaining values (10-cent and 30-cent) are variants on a patriotic eagle-and-shield design. An innovation no less striking in the 1869 pictorials was the introduction of the first two-color stamps in U. S. postal history, on the four denominations of 15-cents and higher.(wikipedia)

Of this series of ten stamps, two present historical tableaux drawn from famous paintings of events that shaped the nation: the 15 cents after the same John's Vanderlyn's Landing of Columbus; the 21 cents after John Trumbull's Signing of the Declaration of Independence

The 15-cent 1869 Pictorial Issue stamp frame and lettering engraved by Douglas Ronaldson and inspired by the "Landing of Columbus," by John Vanderlyn.

For the the World Columbian Exposition of 1893, The Post Office issued on Monday, January 2, 1893 a series of 16 stamps depicting Columbus and episodes in his career, ranging in value from 1¢ to $5 (a princely sum in those days). They are considered the first commemorative stamps issued by any country.

1-cent "Columbus in Sight of Land", 2-cents "The Landing of Columbus", 3-cents "Flag Ship of Columbus",4-cents "Fleet of Columbus", 5-cents "Columbus Soliciting Aid of Isabella", 6-cents "Columbus Welcomed at Barcelona", 8-cents "Columbus Restored to Favor", 10-cents "Columbus Presenting Natives", 15-cents "Columbus Announcing His Discovery", 30-cents "Columbus Announcing His Discovery", 50-cents "Columbus Announcing His Discovery", 1$ "Isabella Pledging Her Jewels, 2$ "Columbus in Chains", 3$ "Columbus Describing Third Voyage", 4$ "Isabella and Columbus", 5$ "Columbus"

The American Bank Note Company printed approximately 2,005,216,300 Columbian Exposition stamps, totaling over $40,000,000 in postage face value"

The stamp’s first sheet was printed on November 5, 1892. Postmaster General A.D. Hazen and J. MacDonough, president of the American Bank Note Company, autographed this sheet. Alfred Jones and Charles Skinner engraved the vignette, and D.S. Ronaldson engraved the frame and lettering. Both the 2-cent Columbian Issue stamp and the 15-cent 1869 Pictorial Issue stamp were inspired by the same painting, "Landing of Columbus," by John Vanderlyn. Douglas Ronaldson engraved the frames for both stamps, with some minor differences. The color used for printing was 'Brown-Violet'. The quantities issued for this stamp total more than a billion, over 70 percent of the total number of Columbian Issue stamps, as it paid the standard letter rate for the time period.

The 4-cents stamp of the Columbus series, entitled "Fleet of Columbus", depicts the Pinta, Santa Maria and Nina,

4-cents "Fleet of Columbus"

From what we have ascertained, only two New York tobacco pipe companies exhibited in Chicago, the F. J. Kaldenberg Company, and the Demuth Company. According to the Official Catalogue, Demuth’s exhibit booths were situated in “Department H. Manufactures, Group 108: Traveling Equipments, Valises, Trunks, Toilet Cases, Fancy Leather Work, Canes, Umbrellas, Parasols, etc.” 

Several catalogs and historical accounts, albums, guides, handbooks, and portfolios were published in conjunction with and soon after the Exposition; in at least one, Herbert Howe Bancroft, The Book of the Fair (1893) a black & white illustration of this pipe is on page 171, and the caption is short and simple, “The Columbus Pipe,” with no accompanying descriptive text.

The only Demuth Company catalog in circulation is dated around 1875, so it’s anyone’s guess as to whether the company published any information as to the pipe’s background: who, by name, carved the pipe, how it was received at the fair, its disposition after 1893, etc. 

 However, in the early 1900s, the company circulated an advertising postcard promoting its products using the image of the pipe on one side—and the accompanying description, “The Discovery of America by Columbus. Cut from a solid block of Meerschaum. Length, 33 inches.”— and the company’s inverted triangle logo, WDC, on the other side. 

In its 1932 company catalog appeared a full-page illustration of the Columbus pipe and the text “WDC $50,000 Meerschaum Pipe.” 

The French newspaper Dimanche Illustré of March 28, 1935 includes a photo of the pipe, giving a better sense of the over sized nature of this masterpiece,

Entitled "A rather sizable pipe", "the remarkable masterpiece presented to us by this smiling young lady dates back to the seventeenth century (sic) and its value is about 10,000 dollars. It belongs to the William Demuth antique collection in New York and represents, carved in meerschaum, a tableau of the landing of Christopher Columbus on the continent of America".

The pipe appeared in Carl Ehwa, The Book of Pipes & Tobacco (1974),

and both the postcard and the company catalog page are prominently illustrated in Rapaport, Collecting Antique Meerschaums (1999), and in the feature story, “Antique Smoking Pipes,” in the Brandywine River Museum (Chadds Ford, PA) Antique Show 2003 catalog.

The Columbus pipe became the property of the Austrian Tobacco Museum, Vienna, Austria, in late 1991, and was the centerpiece of a celebration to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America in that city in 1992. 

The Austrian Tobacco Museum closed in late 2003, and Schloss Schönbrunn, Schönbrunner Schloss-Strasse, Vienna, assumed responsibility for the storage and preservation of the collection as of January 2005. One of the contractual agreements that the new museum assumed was to eventually create a virtual web site to exhibit the collection, and the materialization of this web site has been slowly evolving. 

One day, the world may, once again, see this magnificent rendering in meerschaum in other venues on the Worldwide Web!

As postscript, we have learned of a second meerschaum pipe, also called the Columbus pipe, that was crafted in Chicago about the same time, that was also meant to celebrate this event, an altogether different configuration.

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

"Porcelaine de Paris" Pipe Bowls

By André Leclaire, Member of the Académie Internationale de la Pipe (AIP)

In the inventory records from 1898 of the Alice de Rothschild (handwritten document for the Bibliothèque de Grasse), a few pipes are described as “Porcelaine de Paris”. This provenance, well known by collectors, is still the source of much debate. Indeed, if a large number of these lack a brand marking, their defenders argue with conviction the identification of a style, a motif, in a word a facture that evokes the know-how of the Parisian porcelain manufacturers of late XVIIIth century.

 Wishing to discover a few threads linking these craftsmen to the pieces presented in the various collections, we tried to gather any available data on the workshops susceptible of having manufactured pipes in Paris. 

The manufacturing of hard porcelain in France is linked to the discovery in 1768 of a refractory clay, appropriate to obtain a glaçure stronger than the soft porcelain. The extraction of kaolin in the mines of Saint Yrieiz, close to Limoges, brings a revolution in the French ceramics industry. Within Europe, this discovery is a late one since from the early days of the XVIIIth century, the manufacturers of Meissen, Vienna, Venise, or Chelsea had been manufacturing hard porcelain. 

But the French workshops made up for lost time in a few decades. In addition to the Manufacture Royale de Sèvres, that owned the monopole in this sector, a number of workshops will open in the French capital. Between 1768 and 1781, eleven porcelain manufacturers were in operation, despite the many restrictions lined to the exclusive rights of the Manufacture Royale.

The name Porcelaine de Paris or Vieux Paris therefore applies to the production by the Manufacture royale and those small workshops some of which will operate until the middle of the XIXth century.

Polychrome painted porcelain bowl, representing French King Louis XIII.
Paris, circa 1840.Height : 11,5 cm. Courtesy Mazaleyrat Collection
Pipe reproduced in « Les pipiers français » by G. Guyot, Histoire et tradition, 1992, page 85.


Of those eleven porcelain workshops, four manufactured pipes:

- The one on Faubourg St Denis. Or rather one of the three shops that were in this district. Created by François LALOUETTE and Jean-Pierre HOFFMANN in 1793. In 1798, the activity was taken over by Jacques FLEURY; upon his passing in 1813, inventory records indicate the presence of “pipes decorated with light gold’ (Plinval de Guillebon 1985, 99);

- The manufacturer on Rue Thiroux is of particular importance given that it benefited from the protection of Queen Marie-Antoinette and accordingly had an excellent reputation in the capital. Its production supplied the famous porcelain shop called "Le Petit Carrousel" who provided pipes to the jewellers Biennais et Odiot who in turn would fit a windcover or stem. (Plinval de Guillebon 1985, 137).

- The manufacturer on Rue de Crussol was also the beneficiary of some protection, this time from the Prince of Wales (Le Prince de Galles). Opened by the English Christopher POTTER, it changed ownership a few times before it was acquired by Moyse MAYER in 1800, who also bought the inventory a significant component of which were pipe bowls. (Plinval de Guillebon 1985, 91).

- Lastly, the manufacturer NAST, whose inventory in 1811 mentioned 291 pipes (Encyclopédie 1975, 444).

Those small workshops are overshadowed by the Manufacture de Sèvres, which benefits from privileges such as the use of gold for decoration and a total freedom in the selection of colors or themes.


Located in Vincennes since 1738, its workshops are transferred to Sèvres in 1756. In 1760 it becomes "Manufacture Royale" and starts producing hard porcelain by 1770. Its production is intended primarily for the French Royal Court but also for foreign Princes and Kings. 

One can imagine that the production of pipes could not rival the demand for tables sets or ornamental pieces created by the best sculptors of the time. However, in the archives of this manufacturer which is still operating today, we can find some indication of its existence. The records indicate that 1,159 pipes were manufactured between 1782 and 1848,

A closer look at the records, gives us some interesting insights:

-    First officially recorded pipe in 1782;
-    In 1788, indian pipes were manufactured and offered as gifts to the visiting Indian delegation led by Tipoo-Sahed, the nabab of Mysore; 
-    First figural pipe in 1790;
-    In the second semester of 1815, 493 pipes were manufactured.

Could this last observation be linked to the historical context? 

While this has not been confirmed, let us remember that the Battle of Waterloo took place in June 1815 and that the Prussian army was in Paris at that time. One document states that the security of the manufacture was provided in August 1815 by Prussian soldiers for whom the mold makers created pipes representing Blücher, Bülow and Wellington (Chauvié 1932, 93). The decors in high demand are scenes of bivouac inscribed with "Souvenir de Waterloo". The size of the production by the Manufacture de Sèvres in 1815 allows us to analyze the pipes more closely. 

A nomenclature of the different shapes produced by the Manufacture allows us to visualize the objects:

These shapes will be a surprise to collectors and I have to say that a few of those were completely unknown to me. However 85% of the pipes identified for this period were classified under the standard shapes, in three different sizes.

The above diagram breaks down the type of decoration applied to those bowls.

Half of the pipes bowls have a single gold thread highlighting a base of differing color, which is what we classified as "Décors simples". One pipe out of five has an inscription usually upon customer request. The group qualified as "militaires" includes battle scenes, bivouacs, or bowls representing the military chiefs we have mentioned before: Blücher, Wellington, etc. The group "personnages" refers to some decoration inspired by folk stories and popular imagery such as Pierrot from children's books.

We have the proof that the Manufacture de Sèvres, similarly to some smaller workshops in Paris, manufactured pipe bowls. After losing its royal monopoly during the evolution, the Manufacture had faced many a challenge to the point where its Director at the time, Alexandre Brongniart,

had to sell a large number of pieces not yet decorated (the "blancs") which were acquired by French or foreign decorators.

During the reign of Napoléon, the porcelain manufacturing found a new vitality and France rose to the top rank for its products, rivaling the famed German workshops.

"Two Sèvres porcelain Medici vases from 1811 epitomize Napoleonic prestige and the genius of Alexandre Brongniart, who helped give the Sèvres factory a new lease of life at the start of the 19th century. They are of outstanding interest due to their exceptional production quality, rare subject-matter, historic interest, virtuoso tortoiseshell grounds, powerful gold ornament and prestigious provenance.

The scenes painted by Jean–François Robert on these tortoiseshell-ground Medici vases are particularly accomplished. Although some less prestigious ceramics show the imperial family at leisure or at their various homes, such scenes seldom appear on vases – which were usually decorated with official portraits, military subjects or allegorical scenes. It was doubtless Brongniart who, with an eye on Napoleon’s political Public Relations, chose the subjects for these vases, cleverly exploiting Sèvres’ latest technical innovations and Robert’s outstanding talent as a figure- and landscape-painter.

One vase shows Napoleon in a carriage with Marie–Louise, in front of the Palace of St-Cloud, where their civil marriage had taken place a few months earlier. The other vase shows Napoleon on a grey horse in the hills of Bellevue/ Meudon, about to go hunting. He is flanked by four tall dignitaries in the gold-trimmed green uniforms of the Imperial Hunt sporting the star of the Légion d’Honneur." (Alain Truong)

The requirement to add a distinctive mark was placed upon the small workshops to differentiate from the Royal Manufacture. In that area, Sèvres is exemplary since each piece bears a mark specifying the year of fabrication.

Add to this mark, the personal mark of the creator of the artwork and even the decorator. The following presents some of the marks of the Manufacture: the first to under Louis XVI, then under the revolution, the Empire, Louis XVIII, Charles X and Louis Philippe,

But at that time, the pipes represented a minor portion of the production from the different workshops. Despite the resurgence in 1815 for Sèvres, this category remains small compared with the other European manufactures. By comparison, a report from 1845 refers to an annual production of 300,000 porcelain pipes by the manufacturer Hammer in Carlsbad, Bohemia (Peligot 1846, 73). Another manufacturer close to Magdeburg, produced 60,000 every year. In 1852, the author of a dictionary on commerce expressed his surprise that such manufacturing be so neglected in France at a time where it represents a real opportunity, specially in Germany (Andraud 1852, 1782).

Our visit at the National Museum of Ceramics at Sèvres did not allow us to examine any pipe manufactured by the parisian workshops. The only pipe found was in the form of a photo. It is a chibouk bowl bearing the intials RF for République Française and the date of manufacturing: 1887,

This piece belongs to the category we called décor simple, offering a blue color background (also referred to as" Bleu de Sèvres") decorated with a gold thread.

A biographical research added little additional information on the pipes made of Porcelaine de Paris.

One book presenting two such pipe bowls is the Encyclopédie du Tabac (1975):

- The first pipe bowl is from the collections of the Museum of Hanover and bears the inscription Sèvres at the bottom part of the base (Encyclopédie 1975, 417):

Hanover Museum

The second bowl, decorated with a military scene, belonged at the time to the collection of the Sèvres Museum (Encyclopédie 1975, 443)

Musée de Sèvres, Paris, France

Another pipe bowl is part of the collections of the Pipe Museum in Amsterdam,

Courtesy of the Pijpenkabinet, Amsterdam

Also bearing the inscription "Sèvres" at the bottom part of the base,and depicting a bivouac scene in the Bois de Boulogne, it was a present to General Friedrich Wilhem von Bülow (February 16, 1755 – February 25, 1816), a Prussian general who raised to fame during the Napoleonic Wars.

Pencil Portrait of General von Bülow, Meyers Großes Konversationslexikon, 6. Auflage

While it is still a stretch to talk about a style specific to the Parisian workshops, we can discuss another color, in addition to the blue mentioned earlier. I am referring to the chrome green, also called Empire green,

invented by the chemist Nicolas-Louis VAUQUELIN in 1798,

a green that we find on two pipes from the collection in Grasse,

Unfortunately, neither of these bowls bears the manufacturer's mark.

The same color can be found on a bowl representing Napoléon I sitting on a tree stump,

A second version of the same model can be found in the Rothschild Collection in Grasse, but in white porcelain. Can we attribute it to the same workshop? If so, one would need to consider a few other pieces in the Rothschild that could have been manufactured by one of the workshops mentioned earlier.

Admiral Nelson (1758-1805), Trafalgar Square, London

Frederick The Great (1712-1786)

One has to acknowledge that the best identification of the Porcelaine de Paris remains the presence of one of the many manufacturer's marks.

What remains to be done, is to identify among various collections, concrete examples to complement our information on the French porcelain bowls. An additional task for the readers of this blog who excel in solving such enigmas!

Porcelaine de Paris, XIXth century, Ramazotti Collection

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

Le duc d'Orléans "Ier conscrit de France" Gambier Clay Pipe 1890

"Prince Philippe Robert d'Orléans, the Duke of Orléans (1869 - 1926), was the eldest son of the Comte de Paris, the heir to the abolished French throne. Although France had been a republic since 1848, there were many who agitated for the return of the Orléanist monarchy.

The Duke of Orléans was born in England. He was the great grandson of Louis Philippe, the French King who abdicated from his throne in 1848. King Louis Philippe had taken refuge in England, and Philippe was born during his family's exile.

Photographer: Walery, Photographer to the Queen, Regent Street, London, ca 1890
"Under French law, all male citizens of twenty-one were required to report for compulsory military service and, as Philippe counted himself as a citizen of France, he planned to defy the edict of exile and report for military duty. On February 7, 1890, he presented himself at a recruiting office in Paris and requested that he be enlisted as a humble private. When the bewildered sergeant asked his name he replied emphatically, "Louis Philippe Robert, duc d'Orléans".

La Conciergerie et le Pont au Change, Paris, 1890

The duke was arrested, convicted and sentenced to two years in prison -  but not before he had made a declaration that moved every patriotic Frenchman. In a vibrant voice he cried out in court:"Prison will be less cruel than exile, for this prison will be on the soil of France".

So magnificent a gesture could not fail to melt hearts. Monarchists, some republicans, even socialists gathered beneath his window in the Conciergerie prison, cheering and waving. 

They called him "Le Premier Conscript de France" - the first conscript of France. 

Caricature by Guth in Vanity Fair (English paper), 1890-04-12 , HRH The Duke of Orleans, Ier Conscrit de France

Embarrassed by his popularity, the French president (Garnot) signed an order for his release and on June 4 he was escorted by train to the Swiss border." (as described by Ann Blainey in her biography "I am Melba" 2009).

Louis Philippe's popularity in France and in England, made him an ideal model for Gambier, the famous French clay pipe manufacturer, who had opened an office in London in 1860 and by 1890 employed 400 employees who produced over 200 million clay pipes...

Le duc d'Orléans "Ier conscrit de France" Gambier Clay Pipe 1890, L. 5cm/2" ; H. 5cm/2", Musée Louis-Philippe, Eu, France

Le duc d'Orléans "Ier conscrit de France" Gambier Clay Pipe 1890, L. 5cm/2" ; H. 5cm/2", Musée Louis-Philippe, Eu, France

In September 1890 Philippe accompanied his father on a two month trip to the United States where they visited the battlefields of the Civil War in which his father had fought...

Philippe d'Orleans, Comte de Paris (1838 - 1894), in the uniform of a Captain in the U.S. Volunteers and staff officer to Major General George B. McClellan, 1862.

In 1905 Philippe chartered the ice strengthened Belgica to explore the coast of Greenland.  It had 3 wooden masts and a 160 hp steam-engine that allowed it 7 running-knots. Made of wood it measured 32 m in length, 6.5 m in width, had a total loading capacity of about 260 t, 

The "Belgica" was icebound in the Bellingshausen Sea for over a year, 1898

He hired Adrien de Gerlache de Gomery who had conducted the Belgian Antarctic Expedition of 1897-1899 sailing the Belgica,

This photo was taken circa 1897 using a Hasselblad CF528-39 - Hasselblad H Series.
with Roald Amundsen as his first officer on what was Amundsen's first polar expedition...

This photo was taken in June 1899 using a Hasselblad/Imacon Ixpress 528C - Hasselblad H1.