Saturday, January 23, 2016

Exposition Universelle de Paris 1855

On March 8, 1853 Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire,

signed an Imperial Decree mandating the organisation of an Exposition Universelle to take place in Paris from May 1st to September 30th of 1855.

with a separate exhibition hall for machinery,

the Galerie des Machines,
one-thousand two hundred metres long but only twenty-eight wide - ran parallel to the banks of the Seine

and for the Arts.

Entrance to the Exposition des Beaux-Arts

The two arch-enemies on the French painting scene

Ingres the draftsman and Delacroix the colorist emerged victorious in the painting section, each one matching the other for success, and both accorded almost an entire room to house their respective works.

Odalisque à l'esclave by Ingres, 1842

Entrée des croisés à Constantinople by Delacroix, 1840

Daumier sharpened his wit on some visitors.

In total 5 million visitors would discover the products presented by 24,000 exhibitors from 30 countriesAlmost all of the European nations accepted the emperor's invitation. Russia, with whom France and Britain were at war in the Crimea, refused to participate.  

Among the visitors, Abd-el-Kader, whom Napoleon III had pardoned in 1852,

Photographed by Étienne Carjat in 1865

 and Queen Victoria of England,

On  November 15th, the closing ceremonies took place in the presence of Napoleon III

with composer Hector Berlioz 

Berlioz in 1851

conducting an orchestra of 1,200 musicians and choir singers in renditions of his Te Deum and Cantate impériale.

On that occasion, medals were awarded by an international jury for each sector of the industry.

Of particular interest to us, the jury's report on Tobacco Pipes and Accessories:

"It is necessary that the products we select give an idea of ​​the consumption of different types of pipes in the world. On this point the Expo contains many gaps. We did not see, and besides we would perhaps not consider the small clay pipe, the pipe of a humble penny, the usual companion of the worker and often the poor, the first pipe in the world, according to some amateurs. The porcelain pipe, so prevalent in the north of Germany, Switzerland and eastern France, hardly figured in this Exhibition. 

The "magnesian clay" pipe, called meerschaum, won an
unchallenged victory, in this genre, let us hasten to say, Austria is largely in the forefront. Out of 47 exhibitors of pipes, 8 come from that country. The manufacture of meerschaum pipes in Austria is an important industry. The use of tobacco, much broader than in France, the habit of smoking a cigar in a sort of a soft meerschaum instead of putting it directly in the mouth, the beauty of products that have long been manufactured, the ease of acquiring the raw material, and some spreading habit, it would seem, of having pipes as an object of curiosity or collection, everything increases the number, the luxury and the price of Austrian pipes. Some are sculpted with incredible delicacy. Large groups of characters are cut in the round in this small volume with much greater difficulty given that the meerschaum, which softens and carves very well when it is wet, does nevertheless remain extremely fragile and without cohesion. 
 There is an unquestionable merit of overcoming these difficulties.As far as use is concerned, it is necessary that these pipes have one; if so many are manufactured it is because they sell, regardless of whether you buy them for anything other than for smoking. 

The sculpture of
pipes is especially done in Vienna, where the demand is. The pipe-stems of wood and horn that accompany the pipe bowls are made in great quantity at very low prices in the mountains of Bohemia; clay lined wooden pipes are sometimes made there, a manufacture which is also found in other parts of Germany, and in some provinces of France.  

Many pipes and especially cigar-holders have amber mouth-pieces, so several exhibitors have brought amber and meerschaum. This applies especially to exhibitors from northern and central Germany, who receive Baltic amber and appear to be mainly merchants amber; they sometimes presented quite beautiful specimens, sometimes skillfully carved objects and we must add that this work does not seem to serve very well the amber.

The pipe plays too large a role in the Eastern life for us not to see any in the exhibition. Sent to Paris were those well known pipes, with golden red earth bowls, long stem of cherry, or jasmine, and amber mouthpiece. Two things affect the price, the value of the piece of amber, quite high if it is large and of good quality, and the length of the stem which must be perfectly straight and without knots. This is not very easy to find as the Orientals usually seek them among wild sour cherry. Some manufacturers, usually the Austrians, have more foresight, having planted sour cherry plantations. These trees, carefully cultivated and monitored, provide suitable shoots in much greater abundance.  

Compared to these manufacturers, France seems to play a rather humble role: it was represented by only six pipes exhibitors. Only two of them, thanks to the beauty of their products, earned a high reward: they are those who imported in France the manufacture of meerschaum pipes. A member of one of these houses comes from Germany, the two houses have used Austrian workers. They achieved a very honorable result. In some articles, they say they can compete with Austria. Price difference is also well understood because of transportation costs of raw materials and import duties. As for the difference in the price of labor, it may be partly offset by the greater skill and quickness of execution of workers who work in Paris. There is also a kind of metal pipes whose bowls and stems are made in Paris.  

The jury awarded the industry which we are concerned with 7 First Class Medals, 10  Second Class Medals  and 77 Honorable Mentions."

First Class Medals:

MM. GANEVAL, BONDIER DONNINGER (No. 8767), Paris (France). - Mr. Donninger, a partner in this company, is one of those who have contributed to the importation of the
industry of pipes. Today he has presented with his associates a quantity of beautiful products; the quality is not inferior to that of their Austrian competitors. If they have a little less feats of sculpture, figures that adorn their pipes may be a better design. The industry, still in its infancy, was molded by their efforts as a great and interesting development.

MM. SEJOURNANT-CARDON and Co. (No. 8799), Paris (France). - We owe MM. Séjournant-Cardon and Co the same praise as the previous house. Perhaps even more significant is their business. On both sides, equal virtue, equal talent, equal effort and equal services in their effort to bring a foreign industry in France; this is enough justification for the same reward which was awarded to each of these exhibitors.
M. GERARD FLOGE  Vienna (Austria). - This large house has presented an assortment of pipes of very remarkable manufacture. With its excellent manufacture and its considerable production, it is occupying one of the first places in a big industry where it is not easy to assign ranks. It has received Honorable awards in Vienna, London and Munich, which prove its merit.  

M. JEAN FRIEDRICH (No. 1118), Vienna (Austria). - Mr. Friedrich is mostly a very skilful sculptor is out of his workshops that come these wonders of skill and patience, which already in London, had earned him a Medal. This year, he demonstrates the same skills. His products, such as finesse of sculpture and delicate accumulation of difficulties overcome, can be put at the forefront. 

M. PHILIPPE BEISEIEGEL (No. 1091), Vienna (Austria). - This exhibitor is reputed in Vienna, and, we are told, trusted by amateurs and connoisseurs alike. We add to this  that his products are of a very high quality, choice of materials, care and execution, and also with designs a little better than most of its competitors. 

M. Louis HARTMANN (No. 1137), Vienna (Austria). - Mr. Hartmann has a very extensive activity and quite old, it employs about 150 workers, he sent mainly products with simple design but beautiful, and good quality, some beautiful cherry stems and amber objects. We also noticed small pipes enclosed in a case properly made, which contains also a tobacco pouch, all at a very moderate price. 

M. SAMUEL ALRA (No. 1090), Vienna (Austria). - It is not only through its pipes that Mr. Alba has attracted the attention of the jury, but also with a large collection of amber objects,stems  and canes. These products indicate a very considerable trade and the execution is very good.

 Second Class Medals:

M. JOSEPH ZEITLER (No. 1193), Vienna (Austria). - This exhibitor owes its reputation mainly in the manufacture of the fake meerschaum, or pipes made from the waste occasioned by the work, and is made by compressing the waste with a fat which makes its cohesion. But he proved at this very exhibition that he knew how to make beautiful pieces out of natural meerschaum. He has also presented a rather clever imitation of amber made out of horn.  

MM. SALTHIEL, GOLDMANN and FISCHER (no. 1170), Vienna (Austria) presented pipe heads of natural and artificial meerschaum. The number of workers is considerable, so is their business, and the execution is very satisfactory.  

Mr. LEOPOLD NAGL (n "1158), Vienna (Austria), exposes pipes and hoses, and any exposure is done in his establishment, and information that reached him on the jury, as well as reviewing its products, make it look like a distinguished industrialist. 

 Mr. THEOPHILUS MATTHES (No. 1154), Vienna (Austria). - Pipe stems in wood and mother of pearl. In this kind of manufacturing, unattractive in appearance, Mr. Matthes has deployed an unusual talent. This is, perhaps, the finest stem work that Austria has sent us.  

MICHEL BIONDEE (No. 1095), in Baden, near Vienna (Austria). - The only objects sent by him pipe stems made of griotlier. We know the high price that sell these pipes. Those of Mr. Biondek come from his plantations; that kind of culture, which requires great care, employs for the same reason a lot of workers and is an interesting industry.  

Mr. FRANCOIS HIESS (No. 1131), Vienna (Austria). - Mr. Hiess is an expert carver, and it is mainly for this reason that he deserved attention and rewards of the Jury.

M.  EDOUARD DUPLOÏEZ DE SONNET (No. 191), Turin (Sardinia). - Mr. Duployez  De Sonnet began to compete with the Austrian manufacturing, and he has already delivered products very estimable some of which are carved with great delicacy. This is an attempt that the jury believes has to be encouraged.  

Mr. ARTIN (Ottoman Empire). - We were presented under this name pipes made of sour cherry wood, good size and good quality. We were told that these pipes come from plantations owned by the manufacturer. Jury award will reward these products as unusual from the culture of the Levant.  

MANUFACTURERS OF VARIOUS PIPES, lacquered and others from Yarpoor (India) and metal from Bengal. - These objects are decorated with inlaid silver, standing out with taste and delicacy against a black background, they hold their place quite well in this beautiful Indian exhibition.

 Honorable Mentions:

 MJ-C. HOCUAPFEL (No. 8766), Strasbourg (BasRhin), France, for his pipes of wood and roots of good manufacture and a reasonable price.  

Mr. AD. GLICIIARD (No. 8757), Rennes (Ille-etVilaine), France, for its wooden pipes very cheap, responding to the needs of the country's consumption.  

Mr. CB.-ALPII. Bouchez (No. 8753), St. Marguerite (Pas-de-Calais), France, for machine made wooden pipes cases, good quality at a remarkably cheap price.  

Mr. WANTIEZ-DERESME (No. 8809), in Merville (North), France, for pipe cases decorated with inlaid metal, solid work and neat.  

Mr. MATHIAS KI CEIS (No. 1050), Vienna (Austria) for objects in yellow amber and meerschaum, and its ability to take advantage, by a sort of calcination,of defective pipes.  
 Mr. JEAN-G. WAGNER (No. 1183), Vienna (Austria), for pipes and cigar in meerschaum and amber. 

 Mr. CHARLES ECKELT (1107), Vienna (Austria), for wooden cigar holders.  

JEAN ÉTHOFER ( 1109), Vienna (Austria), for imitations of amber and meerschaum.  

Mr. ANTOINE MATEGA (No. 1153), to Herrnals, near Vienna (Austria), for horn pipe stems, produced in abundance at very cheap.  

ARNOLD TREBITSCH (No. 1178) in Vienna for wooden pipe stems, very well executed.  

THE SON OF ANTOINE FOCEE (No. 4) in Rumburg (Bohemia), Austria, for wooden stems and pipes, high production and cheap.  

JOSEPH SCHUPPLER (No. 1173), Vienna (Austria), exposed pipes and canes of good manufacture.  

Mr. J. PIETSCHMANN (No. 1163), in Rumburg (Bohemia), Austria, for stems made from wood and horn producing very considerable work that provides work for a very poor country.  

M.IGNACE KINISCH (n * n43), Vienna (Austria), for cheroots in horn, amber and meerschaum.

 Mr. S. STROHSCHNEIDER (No. 1175 B), Prague (Bohemia), Austria, for a fine meerschaum pipe.  

Mr. J. TRENNER (No. 1179), in Baden, near Vienna (Austria), for pipe stems in sour cherry wood.  

Mr. J.-Fr. JORDAN (No. 119), Fürth (Bavaria), for very cheap flexible pipe stems.  

KURSCHID-AGA (Ottoman Empire), for red clay bowls. 

MANUFACTURERS OF PIPE SIVAS (Asia Minor). - These stems are of jasmine, covered with straw and silk or silk and gold, they are very elegant and sell cheaply. And a pipe stem coated with gold and silk sold for 30 dollars (6 francs). 

 PANAGIOTAKIS (No. 129), Greece, for carved wooden pipes.  

SCIADOPOULOS (No. 131), Greece, for the same products.  

Mr. H. WOBCXE (No. 51), Hamburg (Hanseatic Cities) for meerschaum pipes and objects in amber.  

MM. BETZ and MIELCÏE (No. 66), Worros (ducal Hesse), for their objects of amber of fine quality.  

 Mr. C.-W. HoprHANN elder, Gdansk (Prussia), for mouthpieces, jewelry and other objects in yellow amber.  

Mr. CH.-L. TESSLER (No. 113O) at Stolp (Pomerania). Prussia, for jewelry and other objects in yellow amber.  

MJ-A. WINTBBFELD (n * 1134), Breslau (Silesia) Prussia, for various items carved and chiseled in yellow amber.  

M.LBIBINGEB (No. 182), Ulm (Wurtemberg) for wood and root pipes

Thursday, January 14, 2016

Pipes at the Manufacture de Saint-Etienne ca. 1900

In 1764, the King of France Louis XV 

awarded a group of entrepreneurs in the town of Saint-Etienne 

Cassini's map of Saint-Etienne in 1764.

the monopoly over the manufacture of all weapons  for the French troops as well as any request from foreign governments, the American insurgents, the order of Malta or the Compagnie des Indes. 

The Royal Arms Manufacture of Saint-Etienne (MAS) was born.

Grenade launcher with grenade, Manufacture de Saint-Etienne, 1760

12,000 weapons were being produced each year when French Revolution happened. 

Musket Modèle 1777 in service from 1777 to 1826

Detail of the Musket Modèle 1777
The city was renamed Armsville during the revolutionary period and production increased to meet demand of the revolutionary army fighting at the borders against the Royalists supported by European royal families.

The French Empire saw the production increase threefold to meet the needs of the Napoleonic Army in its conquest of Europe.

In 1838, the annual production was well over 30,000 firearms. 

In 1854, army captain Treuille de Beaulieu designed a remarkably powerful pistol

that would be standard equipment for Empereur Napoléon III personal guard, also known as l'escadron des Cent-gardes.

Cent-gardes parade on the Champs-Élysées by Paul-Albert Girard (1869)
In 1864, a modern factory was built, new steam-powered machines were installed 

The Manufacture in 1866-1868

and the first military standardized bolt-action rifle, the Chassepot, was produced from 1866 on, 

The Chassepot in service from 1867 to 1874

then the Gras rifle after 1874.

Gras M80 Model 1874 rifle in service from 1874 to 1886

The MAS began manufacturing the MAC-designed Lebel rifle in 1886.

the "Lebel revolver" in service from 1892 to 1960. It was the standard issue sidearm for officers in the French military during the First World War.

In 1888, the Manufacture Francaise d'Armes et Cycles de St.Etienne started operating under the trade name Manufrance , the first French mail order company.

It mainly specialised in shotguns (Robust, Falcor, Ideal, Simplex) 

and bicycles (Hirondelle); 

however, they covered other products, ranging from fishing rods to household items, such as wall clocks and pipes...

Briar, meerschaum and porcelain pipes in the MAS catalog ca 1900

Most of the products sold by Manufrance were made by third party manufacturers, then labeled and retailed by Manufrance. The above pipes were most likely manufactured in Saint-Claude, less than 120 miles away.

Sunday, January 10, 2016

Fabrique de Pipes/ F. Gotsche/ Paris

A fine meerchaum pipe, 

Possibly depicting Siegfried,

 in a fitted leather case stamped 'Fabrique de Pipes/ F. Gotsche/ Paris/ 176 Rue Rivoli. 176'.

Courtesy Freeman's Auctions